Geskiedenis Podcasts

Fox IV DD- 234 - Geskiedenis

Fox IV DD- 234 - Geskiedenis

Fox IV

(DD-234: dp. 1,190, 1. 314'4 "; b. 31 '; dr. 9'd"; s. 34 k .;
kpl. 130; a. 4 5 ", 1 3", 12 21 "tt .; cl. Clemeon)

Die vierde Fox is op 12 Junie 1919 van stapel gestuur deur die New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden, N.J .; geborg deur juffrou Virginia Blair, grootmoeder van assistent -sekretaris van die vloot Gustavus V. Fox; en in opdrag van 17 Mei 1920, bevelvoerder A. D. Turnbull, in bevel.

Die skip is vir buitelandse diens aangewys en vertrek, nadat dit ingerig is, op 20 Augustus 1920 uit Philadelphia na Newport, RI, waar sy torpedo's en brandstof aangeneem het, en op die 28ste aan die gang was vir die Middellandse See.

Sy het op 21 September in Constantinopel, Turkye, aangekom en aangemeld om diens te doen by die Amerikaanse vlootafdeling in Turkse waters. Fox het tot in Julie 1922 in die oostelike Middellandse See en die Swart See gekruis en verskeie hawens van Turkye, Griekeland, Palestina, Sirië, Klein -Asië, Roumanië, Rusland en Egipte besoek. In die tyd van versteurde toestande in die Nabye Ooste en Suid -Rusland het sy hulp verleen aan Amerikaanse handelsmanne, hulpverleners en Red Crosa -werkers, en amptenare van die Voedseladministrasie het pos, versendings en passasiers vervoer; bediener as stasieskeep by verskillende hawens; en gehelp met die ontruiming van vlugtelinge uit die Krim.

Fox het op 8 Julie 1922 uit Konstantinopel na die Verenigde State vertrek, en het op 27 Julie in Philadelphia aangekom. Na 'n opknapping en oefeninge, het die skip op 28 September by Norfolk aangekom en weer in diens in die Nabye Ooste. Sy vertrek op 2 Oktober 1922 uit Norfolk en arriveer op 22dag in Konstantinopel. Hier was sy betrokke by kommunikasie- en intelligensiediens by die U.S. Naval Detachment in Turkish Waters tot 18 Julie 1923, toe sy via Napels en Gibraltar na die Verenigde State seil, en op 11 Augustus in New York aankom.

Gedurende September en Oktober 1923 was Fox, verbonde aan die Scouting Fleet, besig met vlootmaneuvers in die Newport, R.I. -gebied. In November is die skip in die 3D Naval District ingedeel en gedurende die daaropvolgende 7 jaar is dit gebruik om Naval Reservists op te lei. Sy het op 24 Oktober 1930 in Philadelphia aangekom en is op 2 Februarie 1931 uit diens geneem by die Navy Yard.

Fox is op 1 April 1932 in kommissie in die roterende reservaat in Philadelphia geplaas. Op 18 Junie is sy in volle kommissie geplaas en by Destroyer Division 1, Squadron 1, Scouting Force aangestel. By vertrek uit Philadelphia op 29 Junie, het Fox na Hampton Roads gegaan en op 2 Julie was hy aan die gang met Afdeling 1 vir die weskus, via die Panamakanaal, wat San Diego op 22d aankom. Van 1932 tot 1938 het Fox byna voortdurend in die Stille Oseaan gewerk met vernietiger -eskaders van die Scouting Force en Battle Fleet, wat aan taktiese en strategiese oefeninge langs die kus deelgeneem het en na die Canal Zone of Hawaii gebied gegaan het om aan vlootprobleme deel te neem. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het sy twee vaarte na die Atlantiese en Karibiese gebied gemaak, een van April tot Oktober 1934 en die ander van April tot Oktober 1936. Op 14 Mei 1938 het Fox uit San Diego vertrek vir die ea. kus vir ontmanteling. Sy het op 2 Junie by die Philadelphia Navy Yard aangekom en is op 16 September 1938 uit diens geneem.

Fox is op 25 September 1939 weer in diens geneem by die Atlantiese Eskader en het vanaf 25 Oktober begeleiding en patrolliediens langs die Atlantiese kus en in die Karibiese gebied uitgevoer tot in Augustus 1940. By aankoms in Balboa, CZ, 25 Augustus, het sy patrolliediens vanaf die hawe uitgevoer tot met die seil vir San Francisco, 25 Oktober. Fox patrolleer by die Local Defense Forces, 12th Naval District tot vertrek 2 Januarie 1941 vir Seattle, Washington. Sy patrolleer langs die kus van Washington en Oregon met Local Defense Forces, 13th Naval District, tot Desember 1941, behalwe terwyl sy van Maart tot Junie, en van 20 Augustus tot 9 Oktober tydelik aangestel in die 12de vlootdistrik.

Op 12 Desember 1941 vertrek Fox uit Bremerton, Wash., Op pad na Alaska as begeleier van SS SoutherlanDD- Sy arriveer op 18 Desember by Dutch Harbor en gaan as begeleiding van handelskepe na Sitka, Kodiak en Dutch Harbour, en keer terug na Seattle 12 Februarie 1942. Na herstelwerk aan die Puget Sound Navy Yard, het sy 'n siftingsfunksie uit Seattle uitgevoer, as 'n gereedskip opgetree in Port Angeles (14-18 Maart) en drie begeleide reise na San Pedro tot 10 Mei 1942.

Van 21 Mei 1942 tot 20 Mei 1943 vaar Fox as begeleier met 12 konvooie handelskepe wat na verskillende hawens van Alaska op pad was, en is gemoderniseer in Seattle (3 Julie 8 September). ~ Op haar vierde vaart van hierdie plig vertrek sy uit Seattle 22 September 1942 vir Dutch Harbour en nadat hy 'n vervoer na Chernofski -baai ondersoek het, vertrek hy op 28 Oktober uit Dutch Harbor om 'n konvooi van vier Russiese duikbote na San Francisco te begelei.

Op 25 Mei 1943 vertrek Fox uit Seattle vir langdurige diens as patrollie- en begeleiingsvaartuig tussen die hawens van Alaska, wat onder bevel van kommandant Northwest Sea Frontier tot 25 Maart 1944 opereer. na die waters van Alaska en het mans van die vloot, mariene korps en kuswag tussen Seattle en basisse by Kodiak en Adak vervoer.

Op 15 April vertrek die skip uit Seattle na San Diego, waar sy by Western Sea Frontier Forces, Suid -Kalifornië Sektor, aansluit. Sy het tot in September in die San Diego -gebied geopereer, onderneem om onderzeeërs te oefen, mans van die klankskool op te lei, passasiers te vervoer, begeleiding te verrig en te vaar om bewegende foto's te maak.

Fox vertrek uit San Diego op 22 September 1944 en arriveer op die 26ste by die Puget Sound Navy Yard vir omskakeling na 'n ander hulp. Sy is op 1 Oktober herklassifiseer AG-85. Op 4 November het die skip na Seattle gegaan, en nadat hy geskeduleerde oefeninge gehad het, het die 8ste na San Francisco begin. Sy het op die 11de by Naval Air Station, Alameda, aangekom en vir diens by Commander Fleet Air aangemeld. Van November tot September 1945 was Fox gebaseer op Alameda, op die 11de tydens vliegtuigoefeninge en dien hy as doelskip in lugtorpedo -oefeninge in die Monterey -gebied. Sy vertrek uit San Francisco Bay op 18 Oktober 1945 na die ooskus, en arriveer op 7 November in Norfolk, VA. Fox is op 29 November 1945 by die Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, VA, uit diens gestel. Sy is verkoop vir die sloop van 12 November 1946.


Fox IV DD- 234 - Geskiedenis

Fox Tango International bied die evolusie van die "quotFL" versterker aan

'N Kykie na die inhoud van die FL-1000

Die meeste amateurradiooperateurs van die 21ste eeu is goed bekend met die wêreldbekende FT-101 en die bypassende reeks bykomstighede, waaronder die FL-2100B kompakte 1200w PEP lineêre versterker. Die FL-2100B ken sy betroubaarheid, met behulp van robuuste 572B versterkerbuise, hoë kwaliteit konstruksie en 'n redelike verkoopprys op die tweedehandse mark. Die evolusie van 'n wonderlike versterker soos die FL-2100-reeks het egter nie oornag plaasgevind nie, maar laat ons 'n toer deur die verskillende versterkers neem. Teen die tyd dat Yaesu (Wireless) Musen sy oorspronklike & quotF & quot -lyn in 1964 bekendgestel het, is dit vinnig opgevolg deur 'n verfynde & quotF & quot -reeks in 1965 met 'n transceiver -vermoë en 'n bypassende 1200w PEP -ingang lineêre versterker.

Begin met die Yaesu FL-1000, die metgesel versterker vir die Yaesu & quotF & quot-reël.

Die FL-1000 gebruik vier 6JS6C-eindversterkerbuise in die grondrooster-konfigurasie met kondensator

koppel insette aan die katodes en geen tune ingangskringbane nie. Gewaardeer op 1200 watt PEP INPUT tipies

Die kragopbrengs sal 450 watt of effens meer wees met goeie sterk buise.

(Webmeester FL-1000 W4CLM)

Skematiese, bo- en onderaanskoue van die FL-1000

Dit is interessant om te kyk na die FL -versterkers wat in die vordering volg, maar die algemene uitleg van die kragtoevoer, RF -dek, koelwaaiers en ooreenkomste van een versterker na die volgende.

FL-1000 Kragtoevoer

As ons ons toer deur die verskillende FL-versterkers voortsit, sal ons baie ooreenkomste met die uitleg van stroombane sien,

en komponente wat gebruik word. Die TR-relais wat u op die foto hierbo sien, moes vervang word, nie verbasend vir 'n versterker wat in 1965 vervaardig is nie. Die TR-relais wat ek gekies het as plaasvervanger vir my vroeë FL-1000, is dieselfde antenna-relais wat in die FL-2100B gebruik is en nog steeds tans beskikbaar deur Yaesu -onderdele. (RL-1 P/N M1090001)

Yaesu FLdx2000

Oktober 1967 gebruik die FLdx-2000 vier 6KD6-veegbuise in die grondrooster-opset. Net soos die vroeëre FL-1000, het hierdie versterker geen ingevoerde ingangskringe gehad nie. Die insetsein is vanaf die ingang SO-239 na RL-1 gevoer en is gebruik as 'n kondensator gekoppel aan die 6KD6 katodes. Hierdie metode werk redelik goed met die ontvanger van dieselfde era. Die finale versterkerstadium van die transceiver is ingestel vir maksimum kragoordrag na die lineêre versterker. Nie anders as die hedendaagse moderne solid -state -ontvangers wat 'n las van 50 Ohm en 'n minimum staande golfverhouding moet sien vir maksimum kragoordrag na die versterker.

FL2000 Bo- en onder -aansigte

Die vier 6KD6 versterkerbuise wat horisontaal in die PA -hok gelê en gebruik is

'n enkele waaier vir gedwonge lugverkoeling onder die PA -kompartement.

FL2000B September 1969 met die bekendstelling van die FL200B Yaesu het 'n beduidende stap vorentoe gemaak deur weg te gaan van die gebruik van sweepbuise in die lineêre versterkers en die gebruik van twee parallelle Cetron triode 572B finale versterkerbuise in die geaarde netkonfigurasie.

Ander verbeterings sluit in individuele afgestemde insetspole

en dubbele koelwaaiers een vir elk van die PA-buise, baie soos die latere FL-2100B.

Yaesu's & quot; Grand Linear & quot; Versterker met 'n ingangskrag van 1500 watt met 100 watt aandrywing.

In teenstelling met vorige versterkers wat deur Yaesu vervaardig is, kan hierdie versterker van 1,9 Mhz tot 28 Mhz amateurbande bedien word. Met dubbele waaiers om die vyf horisontaal gemonteerde 6KD6 uitsetbuise af te koel.

Februarie 1971 gebruik die FL2500 VYF horisontaal gemonteerde 6KD6 buise.

1.9 Mhz tot 28 Mhz

Ook in Europa verkoop deur die invoerders Sommerkamp,

as die Sommerkamp FL2500

FL2500 Skematiese diagram

Die meter is tweeledig. Dit sal die plaatstroom lees en die amp kan ook dien as 'n Forward/SWR meter.

Daar is 'n skakelaar langs die meter vir CW/Tune (boonste posisie), SSB (onderste posisie).

Yaesu FL-2100 /B /F

Die FL-2100B is waarskynlik die bekendste en mees gebruikte versterker in hierdie reeks.
Die FL-2100B is ontwerp as 'n konserwatief aangepaste versterker vir gebruik met die FT-101E en bypassende bykomstighede.

Daar was drie variasies wat gelyk het en vir alle praktiese doeleindes dieselfde gewerk het

Die oorspronklike FL2100, The FL2100B en die FL-2100F (Minder werking van 10 meter)

Van CQ Ham Radio Japan Desember 1971

U sien hier die oorspronklike FL2100

FL-2100 skematiese diagram

Een van die goeie eienskappe van die 2100 Lineêre versterker bo dié van die vorige modelle was die gebruik van dubbele voorpaneelmeters wat deurlopende monitering van plaatstroom en spanning verskaf het. Die FL-2100 beskik oor twee robuuste 572B-koolstofplaatbuise in 'n A-ruit met 'n stroombaan van klas B met afsonderlike ingevoerde ingangspoele vir elke band.


SOMMERKAMP FL2277 (Dieselfde as FL2100)

'N Mens kan amper geen verskil onderskei van 'n FT-101E wat deur die Switserse invoerders in Europa verkoop word as die Sommerkamp FT-277E nie, asook die Yaesu FL-2100 versterker wat verkoop word as die Sommerkamp FT2277 lineêre versterker.

Sommerkamp was 'n Switserse firma wat allerhande kommunikasietoerusting op die Europese mark verkoop het, hoofsaaklik aan Duitsland en Italië. Sommerkamp het niks self vervaardig nie, hulle het baie toerusting direk van Yaesu en ander vervaardigers gekoop en onder hul eie handelsmerk verkoop, anders as Radio Shack in die VSA. Dit het reeds begin met die FR-50 en FL-50 reeks. Gewoonlik het hulle standaardtoerusting gekoop, maar af en toe het hulle iets op hul eie spesifikasies (FTDX -reeks) of CB -goed laat vervaardig, wat in groot getalle verkoop is. Dus: elke Sommerkamp is eintlik 'n Yaesu (of ander handelsmerk). Die enigste oorspronklike Sommerkamp is die naamplaatjie. Wim Penders PA0PGA

FL2100F Voeg 10 meter by u FL-2100F

Die FL-2100F is voorbereid op 'n operasie en die byvoeging van 10 meter

Op die foto hierbo kyk u na die keuserskakelaar agter die invoerband. As u mooi kyk, net onder die weerstand van 33 Ohm in die middel van die ingang en van links die derde Mica -kondensator. U sien die wit deel van die skakelaar; dit sou normaalweg 'n kontak van 10 m gehad het, maar dit ontbreek. Om die ingangskringloop (S2b) van 10 m te voltooi, moet u vervang.

Waarna u hier kyk, is S2b verwyder en u sien die ingang van die afgestemde kring na die FL-2100F, die spoel aan die regterkant is nog nie aangesluit nie. Dit is nuut vir 10 meter. U benodig ook nog twee keramiekdeurknoppie -kondensators saam met u nuwe bandskakelaars voor en agter vir 10 meter om te werk.

C211 200pf (dieselfde as FL-2100B)
C215 100pf (dieselfde as FL-2100B)
L206 10 meter insetspoel P/N L0020710

A dd op 10 meter vir die FL-2100F model versterker.

Nuwe ingangskringspoel, twee nuwe keramiekdeurknoppies en voor- en agterste bandskakelaars was nodig om die werk te verrig.

Terwyl u besig is, kan u die binnekant van die versterker net so goed skoonmaak!

Close-up van die bandskakelaarposisie op die FT-101F terwyl die nuwe posisie van 10 meter werk. Op die -F- model moet u die voor- en agter-, invoer- en uitvoerbandskakelaars vervang. DIT IS 'N WERK !! Ek het dit gekoop van 'n baie goeie persoon op Fox Tango. My goeie vriend Rick KA4ZSG. Dit is die voltooide versterker nadat die voor- en agterbandskakelaars vir 10 meter geïnstalleer is. Die FL-2100F kom nie met die 10m-band nie, danksy FCC-beslissings oor lineêre versterkerbediening wat moontlik op Citizens Band in die Verenigde State gebruik kan word.

Onderdele benodig vir byvoeging van 10 m

10 meter byvoegingskit vir die ** FL-2100F ** Yaesu P/N D3000037 (uitverkoop)
Die kit het bestaan ​​uit
C211 200pf K24356201 (Dieselfde as FL-2100B) $ 9,20
C215 100pf K24356101 (Dieselfde as FL-2100B) $ 9,20
L206 10 meter insetspoel P/N L0020710 $ 9,92
Frontband SW N0050008 Met kontak van 10 meter (nie meer beskikbaar nie) was $ 35,25 USD
Voorband SW Vervang deur voorbandskakelaar N0050034B $ 68,35
Agterband SW N0050009 Met kontak van 10 meter $ 25,65

Totaal vir doppe, spoel en skakelaars was $ 122,32.

Oorweeg dit om 'n gebruikte FL2100B te koop

of net doen u 'n opknapping op u FL2100B?

Kyk na die bandskakelaar!

Vuur in die gat seuns!

1977 Yaesu bulletin CA: 128 Verwysings na bandskakelprobleme

Let wel: C222 neem baie hitte uit die 572B -eindstryd, as dit gebars is of tekens van mislukking toon, vervang dit. C222 is die uitgangskoppelingskondensator wat die tenkkring voed, dit kan op die foto hierbo heel regs gesien word. Hierdie keramiek -kondensator is uit 'n werkende versterker verwyder, maar dit is 'n tydbom wat rondlê vir 'n klein ramp. krake was as gevolg van hitte in die PA -kompartement. Hieronder sien u GOEIE YAESU-DEELNOMMERS VIR DIE Keramiekondensators uit die FL-2100-reeks, let daarop. By die bestelling van vervangings verander iemand twee nommer as hy C222 K24356102 bestel, het ek 'n K31356102 Mica Cap Cap Axial leads 1000PF @ 16.82 ea gestuur. Met die Yaesu -onderdeelnommers begin al die CERAMICS K24. en die MICAS is K313. iets. Kontroleer dus altyd u onderdeelnommers by die bestelling en maak seker dat die onderdele -afdeling die regte onderdeel aan u stuur.

Die FL-2100B was vol Nicotine Gravy toe ek begin en die bandskakelaar is op 75 meter verbrand. So het dit gelyk nadat ek binne skoongemaak het en 'n nuwe bandskakelaar geïnstalleer is.

Sien meer oor aanhangers hieronder

Verskeie foto's met die tenkbaan verwyder en PA -hok gereed vir opruiming.

Dit is die voorpaneel van 'n FL-2100B wat verwyder is. Skoon gemaak, aangeraak met verf waar nodig met nuwe plastiek op die paneel. Dit het gelyk asof dit fabrieksnuut was toe dit klaar was.

Yaesu Tegniese Bulletin:

Wil u 'n gebruikte FL2100B koop?

By die aankoop van 'n versterker uit die FL-2100-reeks, is sommige van die dinge waarna u in hierdie versterker wil soek, verbrande parasitiese weerstande, 22 ohm (2 watt-weerstande) op die plate van die 572B-buise. Gebrande bandskakelkontakte soos aangedui in Pix & quotA, B & amp C & quot hierbo. 33 ohm (1 watt weerstande) in die roosterkring onder die agterste deksel agter in die versterker verbrand. Waaiers wat stadig draai of nie draai nie (maak dit skoon en verwys na die waaierfoto's.) Hoogspanning behoort tot 2,4 KV en effens hoër te wees, ongeveer 2,6 Kv wanneer die versterker op 220 VAC ingang werk.

Een woord van versigtigheid, wees baie versigtig wanneer u werk met die deksels af en die krag op die versterker, as u dit moet doen. Let ook daarop dat daar 'n veiligheidsvergrendeling onder die deksel van die PA -hokdeksel is. Hierdie skakelaar plaas 'n grond direk op u kragtoevoer met 'n hoë spanning wanneer die boonste skild van die RF -tenkstroomkring verwyder word. Ek het dit al telkemale gesien waar die 47K ohm R207 in serie met die skakelaar oopgebrand word, wat daarop dui dat iemand die versterker aangeskakel het met die deksel van die boonste skerm af van die tenkbaan en die ondergrendel nie verslaan is nie. As u die versterker moet onderhou met die hoë spanning en krag terwyl die boonste skerm van die PA -hok verwyder word, moet u die veiligheidslotskakelaar S7 deaktiveer. Maar wees versigtig vir die H.V. as jy dit doen.

Gewoonlik gee hierdie versterkers u ongeveer 450 watt aan die lae kant en tot 600 watt uitset met nuwe buise en bedraad vir 220 VAC -ingang. RF -onderdele verkoop TAYLOR -buise wat hulle hiervoor aanbeveel in u versterker. Ek het altyd probeer om CETRON -buise te installeer, aangesien dit oorspronklik van die Yaesu -fabriek was met Cetron 572B -buise geïnstalleer, maar Cetron 572B -buise word nie meer vervaardig nie en die TAYLORS van RF -onderdele werk goed. Eintlik is ek daarvan oortuig dat hulle nou net so goed werk, net soos die Cetron -buise ooit gedoen het. Ek beveel nie aan om Sylvetlana -buise in hierdie versterkers te plaas nie, as u die Russiese 572B -buise noukeurig bekyk, is die plaatoppervlak baie kleiner in vergelyking met die nuwe Tayolor -buis. Ek verstaan ​​ook dat die Russiese buise nie so goed hou as dit in 'n horisontale posisie gebruik word nie. Ek het die Sylvetlana -buise gebruik in plaas van 811 -buise in versterkers soos die Ameritron 811H -versterker, en dit werk uitstekend in 'n vertikale posisie in plaas van die tipe 811 -versterkerbuis , nie soos dié van die FL-2100-reeks of die Heathkit SB-200-versterkers nie.

RF-onderdele beveel ook aan dat die FL-2100/B 'n vooroordeel verander, sodat u hul 1 jaar waarborg op die TAYLOR-buise kan kry. Hierdie wysiging kom van 'n Yaesu Technical Bulletin. Ek het dit aan een van my versterkers gedoen en die vooroordeel word aangepas vir 0,03 ampère op die IP -meter. Die gebruikershandleiding vir die FL-2100B sê dat u u vooroordeel moet aanpas by (90 mili ampère) tot 0,090 ampère. My maaggevoel nadat ek hierdie wysiging gedoen het, is dat dit by 0,030 ampère 'n bietjie laag is vir 'n paar om te buig en ek sou die verandering nie weer doen nie. Ek kan net aanvaar dat die tegniese bulletin deur Yaesu gestuur is om die lewensduur van die buise te verleng.

Bedrading van jou FL-2100 versterker vir

220 VAC Europa vs. (117V VAC) of wat byna 250 VAC VSA kan wees!

Baie besprekings is gevoer oor die korrekte bedrading van die versterkers van die FL-2100-reeks vir sogenaamde 220 VAC-werking hier in die state. As u die hele draad wil lees, kan u die kommentaar in meer detail op die openbare forum van die klub lees: sien: Klik hier om die draad te besoek. Om dit kort te hou, sal ek dit baie sê oor die onderwerp. Met die korrekte bedrading hier in die VSA, moet u die twee 117 VAC -voorverkrygings van die versterker in serie Vs. met behulp van die twee 110 VAC -wikkelinge. Tweehonderd -en -twintig volt is nie regtig tweehonderd -en -twintig volt hier in die VSA nie, en u kan u versterker onder spanning plaas en moontlik lei tot voortydige afbreek van komponente en uiteindelik versterkerfout. Dit is belangrik om te oorweeg omdat baie van die onderdele, soos bandskakelaars, nie meer by die vervaardiger beskikbaar is nie, sowel as hoëspanning -deurknoppe, het baie duur geword en is dikwels moeilik om te vind.

As u u versterker aansluit vir 220 VAC volgens die gebruikershandleiding, sal u plaatspanning tot ongeveer 2 600 VDC styg. As u die FL-2100 op 117 VAC gebruik, het u gewoonlik 2 400 VDC op die plaatspanningsmeter. 200 Volds DC op die plate van u buise klink miskien nie veel in die algemene lewensplan nie, maar is dit 'n afweging met die klein hoeveelheid krag wat vergelyk word met die hitte en spanning op die komponente, is dit regtig die moeite werd ? Dit is vir jou om te besluit. My voorstelle vir wat dit werd is, as u in die Verenigde State woon en u van u versterker hou, is dit kinderspeletjies om die krane oor te plaas om die twee 117 VAC -wikkelinge in serie te plaas, ek het presies dit gedoen en nou het my GS -plaatspanning teruggesak na waar dit teen 2400 volt moet loop. (Let op die onderstaande skakels vir bedradingfoto's) Nou kan ek my versterker veiliger laat loop op byna 250 VAC wat in die hok kom, en ek hoef nie bekommerd te wees oor dinge soos lynverlies of 'n kleiner 117 VAC -stroombaan met 'n hoë stroom tydens die hardloop nie. die versterker.

Om dit vir u beter te kan sien. Ek het my sogenaamde 220VAC -lyn in my huis gemeet en ek het meer as 250 VAC! Dit is baie as u die Peak to Peak -spanning en so meer in ag neem, dit sal waarskynlik die versterker redelik hard druk as dit met die twee 110 VAC primaries in serie gekoppel is terwyl u die versterker hier in die VSA probeer gebruik. Waarskynlik buite die VSA, in Europa en elders, beteken die gebruik van 220 VAC werklik 220 VAC, en dit word beslis baie nader aan spesifikasies gehou. As u daaraan dink, kan u dit ook herinner dat ons dit jare gelede in die Verenigde State jare gelede 110 VAC genoem het, maar ek verstaan ​​dat die spanning effens hoër gestoot is om te vergoed vir oormatige lynverlies, wat die stroom al die pad na huise regoor die land!

T o vir u verduidelik, ek het 'n paar foto's geneem van die voor en na 220 VAC bedrading. Laat ons die kant van ons plaatbedradingsdiagram naaste aan die transformator -einde op die foto die boonste en die voorpaneel die onderkant noem, soos dit op my foto's verskyn. As ons ons versterker bedraad het volgens die gebruikershandleiding (vir 220)
U moet een van die ingangspunte na 110 kontak hê.

Skuif dit tot 117 VAC bo -aan die plaatbedradingsdiagram.

In die middel, volgens die boek, tel vier skroefkontakte af, en u sien hoe die nul dit laat waar dit gekoppel is, maar die trui is verbind met die volgende 110 kontak langs die lyn. LAAT DIE NUL -kontak waar dit is en skuif die leiding van 110 na 117VAC -kontak.

Laastens moet u nog 'n NUL -kontak onderaan hê
(Naaste aan die voorpaneel) LAAT DIT WAAR DIT IS.

In opsomming is 'n prentjie duisend woorde werd: (Die manier waarop die boeke dit wys)
220VAC Europa
http://foxtango.org/amplifiers/graphics/FL2100_220VAC_EuropeSmall.jpg

OH & PS:
Terloops, die ekstra trui waarmee u eindig wanneer u van 117 na 220 gaan, verdubbel dit net sodat u dit nie verloor nie. Dit is beter om dit nie op 'n plek in die versterker te laat rondvlieg nie. Dit sal nie skade doen om hierdie kennis te neem nie. Stoor die ekstra springkabel as u een het, in geval u dit het
wil dit ooit terugdraai na 117VAC. Doen dit net. Vertoon vir Europa 220VAC.
http://foxtango.org/amplifiers/graphics/Double_UpSmall.jpg

AG6K -wysigings vir 572B -versterkers

Deur Richard Measures AG6K

Nadat ek vandag telefonies met Richard (AG6K) gesels het, het ek meer insig gekry in die veranderings wat hy vir versterkers in die algemeen voorgestel het, die & quotQ & quot van die parasitiese verstikkings en parasitiese ossillasies. Ek beveel aan dat u na Richards se geskrifte kyk en dit 'n bietjie gee om u versterker te verander. Sy kit sal vereis dat u u parasitiese verstikkings met metaaloksiedfilmweerstands vervang om die Q van die parasitiese verstikkings te verlaag, die roosterweerstands tot 30 Ohm te verlaag en 'n paar bypass -kondensators op die gegronde netstroomkring in te voeg. En nog 'n interessante kenmerk van Richard se kit is die toevoeging van 'n 15 Ohm Omite stroombeperkende weerstand in die plaat H.V. lei tot die beperking van die stroom, sou die versterker toevallig enige ossillasie sien en kortliks 'n hoë stroom trek. Vir meer inligting oor Richards se geskrifte, sien hierdie skakel: Verbeterde parasietonderdrukking van anode-stroombane vir moderne versterkerbuise

My gevoel hieroor is om die oorspronklike 22 Ohm 2w weerstande te gebruik as u dit nog kan vind. As en wanneer dit nie meer beskikbaar is nie, kan u dit oorweeg om die parasitiese verstikkings van Richards 'n bietjie te ondersoek.

Kortliks oor aanhangers!

As u dit nog nie opgemerk het nie. Al die bogenoemde Yaesu-versterker wat hierbo genoem is, het Forced Air-verkoeling gebruik, en elke versterker het sedert die eerste dag dieselfde waaier gebruik, insluitend die opsionele FT-101-ontvanger-waaier! Elke versterker en elke sender moet soveel (CFM) kubieke voet per minuut lug oor die klep beweeg om dit koel te hou by sy volle nominale kraginvoer vir die buis soos ontwerp. Dit gesê, die FL-2100-versterker is nie anders nie en u moet seker maak dat u waaiers nie stadiger geraak het as gevolg van die opbou van nikotienslyk oor die jare nie. Die waaiers kan uitmekaar gehaal en skoongemaak word, of in die minste geoliede. As u nie kan voel hoe die lug uit die bokant van die versterker vloei nie, moet u regtig u waaiers nagaan, want let op die foto's hieronder.

Kom ons kyk.

Ek raai u aan om die voorste en agterste laer in die oplosmiddel in die nag te week om swaar klewerige reste te verwyder. Gebruik 'n swaar smeermiddel as u die waaier weer saamstel en die smeermiddel met u duime in die voorste en agterste laersamestellings druk.

U moet u waaier versigtig toets om seker te maak dat die anker vrylik in die veldspoel draai voordat u die hardeware versterk. Hou in gedagte dat die Japannese waaiers in u versterker en transceiver ontwerp is om op 100 VAC by 60 CPS te werk. Dit is die beste as u 'n VARIAC het om dit teen 100 VAC te toets. As dit nie die geval is nie, kan u dit kortliks met 'n wisselstroomkabel en 117 VAC toets, gebruik elektriese band op u verbindings en wees baie versigtig. U sal die waaier weer moet toets sodra dit in die behuizing van die waaier van die ontvangers geïnstalleer is.

'N Kykie in die FL-2100Z

Afgestemde insetkring FL-2100Z

'N Kykie onderaan die FL2100Z

FT-902DM-stasie met die FL2100Z

Hoe soet is dit nie!

Meer besonderhede volg op die 2100Z

As u 'n item van belang het wat u op die Fox Tango -webwerf wil sien


Live nuus van Fox News

Fox News is 'n Amerikaanse televisiekanaal vir kabel- en satellietnuus in die eienaarskap van Fox Entertainment Group, 'n filiaal in die regte van 21 ste Century Fox. Die opeenhoping in Augustus 2013 het onthul dat 97,186,000 Amerikaanse huise die kanaal in hul konstante horlosies het. Die satelliet-, kabel- en amp -telekykers dra altyd by tot die hoë graderings van die kanaal. Fox News word egter onderskei van sy filiaal Fox Business Network, wat slegs sy uitsendings in die VSA en Australië het. Ons het van baie Demokrate gehoor dat dit die president Trump se agenda bevorder, sodat die kanaal tot 'n suiwer Republikeinse stasie kan wees. die Republikeine meen dat CNN en MSNBC demokratiese ideologieë bevorder.

Die FNC is van sy begin af gevestig in die Rockefeller Center in New York. LiveNewsNow.com bied Fox News Live Stream in HD -kwaliteit aan. Dit kan 'n rukkie neem om die kanaalprogrammering te laai.

Kyk onbeperk met HD PRO - nou 30% afslag !!

Tydens die verkiesing van 2016: GOP, Demokratiese, Republikeinse debatte en super Dinsdag word periodiek uitgesaai, sodat almal maklik hier toegang kan kry om presidensiële debatte te kyk. Alhoewel Fox News by verskeie geleenthede as partydig beskuldig is van die bevordering van die konserwatiewe idees, het dit nooit soveel gehoor gelok as wat nodig was om die nommer 2 -kanaal in die beste tyd te wees om die mededingers soos CNN te verslaan nie. wat kykers betref, lê MSNBC nog voor. Die Januarie 2017 het die FNC -nuus in sy 145ste agtereenvolgende maand vanaf die stigting afgesluit.

Fox News het die afgelope 20 jaar nader aan die Republikeinse Party gekom. Hulle het baie mense bygevoeg tot die lys wat Republikeinse kommentators is, en selfs 'n ondervoorsitter, Sarah Palin, die Huis van Verteenwoordigers, Newt Gingrich en Mike Huckabee, bygevoeg. Boonop het die nuuskanaal $ 1 miljoen aan die Republikeinse Goewerneursvereniging geskenk. Drie jaar later is Fox News oorgedra na 21st Century Fox.

Ongeveer dieselfde tyd het die netwerk besluit om sy mees onlangse slagspreuk van "regverdig en gebalanseerd" te verander na "die mees bekykte, mees vertroude."

Fox News is belaai met aanvalle omdat hulle politieke kant gekies het. Alhoewel hulle probeer het om hulself te red deur hul slagspreuk te verander en die beskuldigdes van teistering saggies aan te moedig om te vertrek, wonder baie mense wat wag wanneer Fox News begin verslag doen oor die komende Amerikaanse verkiesing.

Fox News en die Amerikaanse verkiesing in 2020

Republikeinse steun kan voortgaan op Fox News, aangesien die mees onlangse verslag van Fox News is dat president Trump die Withuis in 2020 gaan wen. Hierdie verslag kom uit Moody's Analytics -verslag waaroor hy eers getwiet het.

'Ons 2020 presidensiële verkiesingsmodelle: Vroeë tekens dui op Trump, hoewel die opkoms die belangrikste is.

Moody sê dat Trump die voordeel inhou vir die ekonomie, persoonlike finansies en energiepryse.

Moody sê nie net dat die Republikeinse kandidaat en president Donald Trump sal wen nie, in 'n afdeling met Jim McLaughlin, bespreek hulle hoe Republikeine BAIE belangstel in die verkiesing vroeër as ander jare. Dit dui daarop dat dit moontlik is dat meer Republikeine by die poele sal opdaag as vorige jare.

In 'n ander peiling waaroor hulle berig het, toon die resultate dat Trump in 2020 herkies word en 46% van die respondente het ja gesê, 40% het nee gesê en 15% het gesê dat hulle onseker is.

Gee hulle die werklike getalle en menings van Amerikaners aan, of toon hulle net wat die Republikeinse party ondersteun? Dit is presies wat hulle van skeptici moes hanteer.

Aangesien al hul nuus konsentreer op die Republikeinse wykantoor, is dit logies dat mense wonder of dit regtig waar is. En wat beteken dit met die verslaggewing vir die verkiesing? Kan hul verslaggewing die wedloop beïnvloed? Moontlik.

Sosiale sielkunde vertel ons dat hulle mense probeer aanmoedig om vir die Republikeinse party te stem deur te wys dat ander mense daarvoor stem. 'N Studie deur die Franse sielkundiges Serge Moscovici en Marisa Zavalloni het hierdie verskynsel onthul toe deelnemers 'n spesifieke onderwerp in 'n groep teenoor individueel bespreek het. Mense sal spesifiek hul houding verander as mense rondom hulle verskillende gedagtes en gevoelens het oor 'n onderwerp, soos huwelike van dieselfde geslag, regstellende aksie en klimaatsverandering. Dieselfde kan gesê word oor politieke sienings.

Wat naysayers moet weet, is dat Fox News nie altyd Republikeine ondersteun nie, soos die meeste aanhangers weet. In elk geval, wie die netwerk volg, sal vind dat mense mense van alle kante bespreek, ondanks wat Trump op Twitter gesê het.
Trump's Rant About Fox News

'N Paar maande gelede het Trump getwiet oor hoe Fox News leuens uitsaai. Trump het getwiet: 'Vanaf die dag dat ek aangekondig het dat ek as president verkies word, het ek nog nooit 'n goeie peiling by @FoxNews gehad nie. Wie hulle pollster ook al is, hulle suig. ”

Doesn’t make much sense, right? For a network that is attacked for supporting one side, they sure are getting attacked from the side they are supposedly on.

It’s obvious that Fox News is not a traditional news network. They have made their own type of news channel that sheds light on matters that other channels won’t because of well, what Fox News gets into trouble for. This may be the secret to its success, though.

Fox News isn’t going anywhere, despite media outlets saying it’s going downhill fast. Its viewership was the highest in the network’s 23-year history in December 2019. The network averaged 2.5 million viewers per night in 2019, and that was more than ESPN, which came in as the second most-watched network. CNN came in 22nd.

Fox News is attracting the attention of most cable watching Americans. Does that mean that Americans will vote for the political party the news channel supports? There’s a good possibility, but what’s wrong with that? Remember, they report and people decide. When it comes right down to it, people will make the decision they want to make whether that’s from influences of Fox News or not.

Fox News has shaped America in many ways. It has been reporting on the nation’s greatest events, and it will continue to do it in a way that has led to its success.


Level 2: Requiring Substantial Support

People with ASD level 2 will have more obvious problems with verbal and social communication than those diagnosed with level 1. Likewise, they will find it harder to change focus. They might, for example, get very upset when they have to move from one activity to the next or to leave school at the end of the day.

Children with level 2 tend to have very narrow interests and engage in repetitive behaviors that can make it difficult for them to function in certain situations.  

A person diagnosed with ASD level 2 tends to speak in simple sentences and also struggles with nonverbal forms of communication.  


Career as a Performer

Following Brown&aposs successful escape, Samuel Smith attempted to ship more enslaved people from Richmond to Philadelphia on May 8, 1849. His plan was discovered, however, and he was subsequently arrested. James Caesar Anthony Smith was also arrested on similar charges, though he did not serve time.

Given the dangers of making Brown&aposs escape public, some abolitionist leaders — including Frederick Douglass — argued that it should be kept confidential. Others argued that the story would inspire other innovative and daring escapes. Brown made the decision to publicize his experience. Shortly after his escape, Brown appeared before the New England Anti-Slavery Society Convention in Boston. He subsequently toured the region performing his story. Boston publisher Charles Sterns also published a version of the story, which would become one of the best-known slave narratives in American history.

Brown again developed his stage show to include a panorama on the institution of slavery. In 1850, the "Mirror of Slavery" show opened in Boston. After passage of the Fugitive Slave Act later that year, Brown moved to England with his panorama. He remained in England for the next quarter-century, marrying and fathering a daughter despite criticism that he should purchase the freedom of his first wife and four children.

In 1875, Brown returned to the United States with his English wife and child. He performed as a magician to make a living. As part of his stage act, he emerged from the original box in which he had traveled to freedom.


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Proven Horsepower Engine Combinations - 500hp Engine Combos

You asked for it. Our reader surveys say you want 500hp engine combos, and while there are several ways to get to that number, the majority of you want to see it without nitrous or a blower. It's seems that 500 hp is the new the 400 hp because everybody claims to have it and it seems easy to get. But is it? What has changed in the last 10 years that allowed an easy 500 to happen? The answer lies in huge jumps in cylinder-head design, low-dollar stroker cranks from overseas, and roller-cam technology that gives you lift and duration without the overlap and valvetrain wear. In this story, we've assembled eight engine combos that are easy to build with available parts, run on pump gas, and are the most economical use of factory blocks we could find. Drop one into your musclecar and feel what 500 hp is all about.

Oldsmobile 468ciMaking 500 hp with a big-cubic-inch engine is relatively easy because of the engine's size. In terms of power, this isn't even 1.1 hp per cubic inch. There is really only one limitation to cranking this much power from a big-block Olds: cylinder-head flow. According to Olds guru Dick Miller of Dick Miller Racing (DMR), it's possible to make five big ones with stock iron heads-he prefers the early A, B, or C casting heads, but ultimately it will cost more to have DMR port your iron heads than to just buy a set of Edelbrock Olds Performer RPM aluminum castings that are ready to bolt on. Keep in mind that these heads require roller rockers that also add up on the bottom line.

As for a camshaft, Miller recommends a DMR-spec flat-tappet hydraulic with 244/246 degrees of duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift with 0.534/0.544-inch valve lift at a 1.6:1 rocker ratio with a lobe separation angle of 113 degrees installed with the intake centerline at 110 degrees ATDC. The earlier 455 engines enjoyed a stock 10.25:1 compression, while later engines dropped to roughly 8.5:1. More compression for the later engines can be gained with Speed-Pro forged pistons that will also add durability.

Miller suggests the Edelbrock Torker as the intake of choice, since it's worth a solid 20 hp over the dual-plane Performer. A 1-inch spacer will add another 10 hp, but unless you've got a cowl hood, the taller combination won't fit. A typical Holley or Speed Demon 750-cfm carburetor will offer excellent power and road manners, and 36 degrees of timing from a reliable distributor will make the most power. Miller also likes the Kooks 1 3/4-inch long-tube headers, but they cost more than the Hookers. The bare minimum exhaust is a mandrel-bent 2 1/2-inch system. While a 3-inch will probably make the best peak power, it will also be heavier and louder than the smaller pipes. Power should be right at 500 hp at around 5,400 rpm with peak torque of around 570 to 580 lb-ft at 4,000 rpm. This is not a high-winding package, which means shifting a big Olds at 5,700 to 5,800 rpm will deliver excellent results of high 11s at 115 mph in a 3,800-pound Cutlass with a gear ratio taller than 3.73. With gobs o' torque, you don't need much gear.

Dick Miller RacingHernando, MS662/233-2301dickmillerracing.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
Speed-Pro forged pistons, 10.25:1L2323F-30Summit Racing$319.60
Edelbrock RPM 455 heads60519Summit Racing1,579.00
Edelbrock head-bolt kit8558Summit Racing95.88
Edelbrock Torker 4552730Summit Racing267.88
Fel-Pro head gasket1155Summit Racing63.95
Harland Sharp 1.6 rockersS5011DMR299.00
Hardened 3/8" pushrods5678-GPDMR179.00
SCE intake gasket179102DMR12.77
Hyd flat-tappet camshaftgewoonteDMRBel

Chevy LS1 5.7LThe Gen III small-block is the engine of the future for hard-core car crafters looking for maximum power. This is also the smallest engine in our power combo at only 346 ci, yet it can achieve the power without resorting to an outrageous cylinder head/camshaft/high-rpm combination. To get the full skinny on a 500hp Gen III motor, we hustled out to Ken Duttweiler's shop in Saticoy, California.

Duttweiler's experience is mostly based around fuel-injected combinations using the factory computer, but a carbureted version would make similar if not slightly more power. According to Duttweiler, all it takes to make 500 hp is cylinder heads that flow 310 cfm or better along with a little more camshaft than stock. For a first-generation small-block Chevy, that's a tall order in the cfm department. But for the Gen III, there are easily a half-dozen heads out there that would fill these airflow shoes. If we had to pick one, Duttweiler agrees the GM Performance Parts CNC-ported LS6 heads are a good choice. The heads come completely ported and fitted with very light, hollow-stem 2.00-inch intake valves and 1.55-inch sodium-filled exhaust valves. GMPP claims these heads can only accommodate up to 0.570-inch valve lift, so you may need some better valvesprings along with a few other pieces. But the airflow is solid at 290 cfm-plus at 0.500-inch lift.

For a camshaft, Duttweiler says the hydraulic roller profile needs to be in the range of 224/236 degrees at 0.050-inch tappet lift with 0.580-inch lift and a lobe separation angle of 115 degrees advanced slightly with an intake centerline of 112 degrees. This is the smallest cam spec that would make this kind of power, as long as you combine the cam with good valvesprings and stiffer aftermarket 0.080-wall pushrods to prevent deflection. The pushrods are necessary because the stockers are weak. A close off-the-shelf cam we found was a Crane HR228 Zcam, but Crane can also custom-grind a cam if you choose to go that route, and the price is not as bad as you might think.

Best peak power will also be achieved with a FAST LSX intake manifold combined with a 90mm throttle body. Compression would also help this program. Duttweiler says cutting the heads 0.020 inch might bump the squeeze to 11:1, and of course a good set of headers like Kooks long-tube 1 3/4- or 1 7/8-inch primary-size pipes will help make torque as well as horsepower. We've seen large-tube headers work on even mild LS1 motors. The only other caveat Duttweiler mentioned is to not spin a stock LS1 over 6,800 rpm because the stock rod bolts are a bit questionable above that rpm. That rpm is also very hard on the heavy hydraulic roller valvetrain.

Crane CamsDaytona Beach, FL386/258-6174cranecams.com

Kooks Custom HeadersBayshore, NY866/586-5665kookscustomheaders.com

Scoggin-Dickey Parts CenterLubbock, TX800/456-0211sdpc2000.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
GMPP CNC LS6 head, pr. 88958665SDPC$1,996.50
FAST LSX intake, 90mm30-54003Summit Racing869.95
FAST 90mm throttle body30-54019Summit Racing519.95
Comp conical springs26918-16Summit Racing179.95
Comp pushrods, 5/16"7955-16Summit Racing133.69
Crane Zcam hyd. roller1449601Summit Racing399.98
Kooks 1 3/4 headers6500RHSKooks Headers864. 90

Ford 466ciIt doesn't get much easier to make 500 hp when you start with a giant motor. The Ford 460 is an easy jump, and most of the parts are a one-stop-shopping expedition if you're dialed into the Edelbrock connection. Jim Grubbs Motorsports built a 0.030-over 460 Ford that we detailed and tested in the Feb. '06 issue ("Easy 500 HP From the Ford 460. ") After later flogging a bigger cam, we discovered that Edelbrock really did its homework on this gem. The Performer RPM package does exactly as advertised, making 514 hp at a loafing 5,400 and 565 lb-ft of torque at 4,400 rpm.

Start with a good, sealed-up short-block with at least 9.5:1 compression (we used Speed-Pro forgings). The Edelbrock Performer RPM flat-tappet hydraulic cam measures 234/244 degrees at 0.050-inch tappet lift with 0.556/0.581-inch lift with 1.7:1 rocker arms and a lobe separation angle of 108 degrees. We used a set of Harland Sharp aluminum roller rockers to tickle the valves. Head selection is also easy with a set of Edelbrock Performer RPM heads that offer 2.19/1.76-inch valves and good flow right out of the box. Grubbs just put a set of these heads on a much more aggressive 642ci stroker Ford 460 and made over 650 hp.

Clearly, the Edelbrock Performer RPM dual-plane intake was a no-brainer for this combo, along with a 750-cfm carburetor that was worth plenty of airflow to make the 500hp number. The trick is to make sure you can fit 1 3/4-inch headers on this beast along with a good 2 1/2-inch exhaust system that minimizes restrictions on the hot gas side. Larger headers only hurt the average power with no plus on the horsepower end. Set the timing at 36 degrees and let 'er rip!

EdelbrockTorrance, CA800/416-8628edelbrock.com

Jim Grubbs MotorsportsValencia, CA661/257-0101

Holley Performance ProductsBowling Green, KY270/781-9741holley.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
Edelbrock Air Gap intake7566Summit Racing$329.88
Edelbrock RPM 460 intake7166Summit Racing205.95
Edelbrock RPM CJ heads61649Summit Racing959.50 ea.
Edelbrock Performer cam kit2167Summit Racing137.88
Harland Sharp 1.73 rockersS4005Summit Racing 215.88
ARP head bolts155-3603Summit Racing105.95
Holley 750-cfm carb mech. 0-4779CSummit Racing396.88

Small-Block Chevy 383ciWhile the first-generation small-block Chevy enjoys the fruits of more horsepower tuning than probably any other engine on the planet, it also suffers from the limitations of its design. Since cylinder-head flow is limited compared with the Gen III engine, we chose to build a 383 with a few more inches to make up for its airflow limitations.

Expect to step up to a good aluminum head like the fully CNC-ported AFR 195 to flow enough air to make excellent torque and still clear the 500hp cutoff. We know AFR has an all-new set of port designs that might be out by the time you read this, and the new AFR 195 is a gangbuster. We've seen the flow numbers on the prototypes and they are killer. If you're willing to be patient for a few months to get heads that can flow 280-plus cfm, that should be worth the wait.

But even if you use the fully ported current version AFR 195 at around 260 cfm, this head will still step up past the 500hp limit. For a camshaft, we're going with a Comp mechanical roller XR274 grind that will spec out at 236/242 at 0.050-inch tappet lift with 0.564/0.570-inch lift with a 110-degree lobe separation angle. This cam will require some stout valvesprings, a good set of roller rockers like Comp's Hi-Tech series, and good pushrods. Combine this cam with 10.5:1 compression, a Victor Jr. single-plane intake manifold, a Holley 0-4779 750-cfm double-pumper carb, and a set of 1 3/4-inch headers, and you have a package that should be worthy of 515 hp at 6,000 rpm and will still make excellent torque with 510 lb-ft at 4,400 rpm. Then your biggest problem will be figuring out how to make the tires stick.

Air Flow ResearchPacoima, CA877/892-8844airflowresearch.com

Comp CamsMemphis, TN800/999-0853compcams.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
AFR 195cc heads1038AFR$1,324.00
Comp XR274 roller cam 12-770-8Summit Racing 245.95
Rockers, 1.6 Hi-Tech1105-16Summit Racing 407.69
Edelbrock Victor Jr. intake2975Summit Racing 185.88
Holley 750 mech. sek. koolhidraat0-4779CSummit Racing 399.95

Mopar 440ciSince the mid-'60s and the introduction of the RB engine (raised block), Mopar guys have had it pretty good. The venerable 440 has always been a relatively cheap, reliable source of horsepower and torque. Enthusiasts devoted to other brands have to pay extra for things that are stock on the Chrysler big-block, such as an external oil pump and shaft rockers. The skirted block, although heavy, provides a very stable bottom-end platform, and the cavernous crankcase lends itself to the addition of various stroker cranks without much fuss. However, since stroker engines can be expensive, do you really need the extra inches to make 500 street-friendly horsepower and 525 lb-ft of torque? That's the question we put to Mike Johnson at JMS Racing Engines in Monrovia, California. Johnson says, "No problem, with modern cam profiles and cylinder heads, 500 hp and 525 lb-ft should be relatively easy, and it shouldn't cost too much, either."

Johnson suggests the use of Edelbrock Performer RPM cylinder heads. Used in conjunction with stock replacement KB Silvolite hypereutectic pistons, the closed-chamber design of the 84cc heads provides a great quench area to deter detonation and puts the compression ratio at 10.3:1 when the pistons are at zero deck height. The heads can be used right out of the box with a Performer RPM manifold.

Johnson tells us the LY connecting-rod forgings are plentiful, inexpensive, and reliably capable of handling much more than 500 hp when equipped with quality hardware. Pre-'73 440s all have forged cranks that also will handle the load, so we used these essentially stock components.

Lunati ground the cam using some lobes designed specifically for the Chrysler lifter. As most Chrysler guys know, the large 0.904-inch lifters allow for faster ramp rates and higher lift without the penalty of long duration times, and Johnson planned to take advantage of this. He wanted the torque curve to be flat, with peak horsepower coming in below 5,800 rpm, so he chose a solid flat-tappet cam with 239/243 degrees of duration at 0.050 and 0.536/0.547-inch lift. The exhaust flow of the Edelbrock head is good enough that a larger split between intake and exhaust duration isn't necessary at this power level. The cam was ground with a 110-degree lobe separation and an intake centerline of 106 degrees.

On a dyno, this combo made 527 hp and 557 lb-ft. The peak horsepower was achieved at 5,600 rpm, and the peak torque occurred at 4,100 rpm, making over 500 lb-ft from 2,900 rpm all the way to 5,500 rpm. In fact, the average torque throughout the entire pull was 529 lb-ft. Even with all that power, it still pulled 12 in-Hg at an idle, just perfect for the street.

JMS Racing EnginesMonrovia, CA626/357-2718jmsracing.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
Edelbrock RPM Chrysler heads60929Summit Racing$1,359.00
Edelbrock RPM manifold7193Summit Racing199.88
KB Silvolite pistonsKB237Summit Racing313.99
ARP rod bolts135-6402Summit Racing51.88
Lunati cam/liftersgewoonteLunati169.95
Crane 1.5 rocker arms64790-1Summit Racing349.95
Holley HP 95080496-1Summit Racing679.95

Big-Block Chevy 496ciSee if you follow this logic. If you are going to make 500 hp with a production iron-block 454, you have to change the pistons, and that means you are going to have to tear the engine down. If there is any machining needed on the rods, including shot-peening, bushing, or repair, it costs almost the same to buy a good set of I-beam connecting rods with ARP bolts. In other words, you should. While you are there, a cast 4.250-stroke crank, instead of the stock 4.000-inch, is available for $259, and since the Rat is externally balanced, you are going to have to pay to balance the rebuilt engine anyway. The block notching should run about $125 in labor.

That gives you a 496 instead of a 454, and the guys at Coast Performance say combine that with a good set of aluminum heads, and it isn't 500 easy horsepower anymore, it's more like 600. Low cost is the beauty of building a Chevy. At $1,700 completely assembled, the Edelbrock heads are getting to the point where they are cheaper than rebuilding iron ones. But, if you knew what you were doing, you could rebuild a set of oval-port heads and do a little pocket porting to get the iron to flow like the aluminum. Assuming a core charge of $200 for factory iron, the price for parts and labor is around $1,200 total. So in this case, we would use the Edelbrock Performer RPM 454-0 heads. They are oval-port heads that take on some of the characteristics of a big rectangular port head without the loss of low-end torque.

Speaking with Chris Huff at Coast, we found that customers want the biggest engine they can afford, so Coast tries to find the late one-piece main-seal-style blocks and bores them 0.060-over. With the Edelbrock heads' 110cc chambers, a low-dome forged piston will give you around 9.5:1 so you can run it on pump gas.

At this horsepower level, you don't really need to give up low-end torque and driveability and run a single-plane intake. So Coast also recommends the Edelbrock RPM Air Gap 2-0. It offers a broad torque curve without giving up too much high-rpm horsepower.

Using a roller cam is an expensive proposition on a big-block, so the recommendation is an Elgin flat-tappet hydraulic with 234/244 duration at 0.050 with 0.553/0.578 lift ground on a 112-degree lobe separation angle. Coast always uses Probe Industries 1.7 roller rockers to enhance the valveguide life and tops the combo off with a Speed Demon 750-cfm carburetor.

Coast High PerformanceTorrance, CA310/784-1010coasthigh.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
Cast 4.250-stroke crank13766Coast High Performance $259.00
Elgin flat-tappet cam 14318Coast High Performance92.00
1.7 rocker arms11645Coast High Performance289.00
Edelbrock RPM heads60459Summit Racing1,739.00 pr.
6.135-inch I-beam rods11663 Coast High Performance299.00
Edelbrock Air Gap manifold7561Summit Racing235.88
Speed Demon 750 carb 132-1402010DR Jegs711.99

Small-Block Ford 408ciWe've seen naturally aspirated 500hp 302s, and they're rowdy and right on the verge of disaster. On the other hand, the 351 Windsor-based engine that came in fullsize cars and trucks from 1969 all the way to about 2003 has the displacement for good torque and with the right combination of parts can make an easy streetable 520 hp.

The guys at Coast High Performance build Windsor-based 408s with 4.00-inch strokes and 4.030 bores using tall-deck 351s and 6.2-inch rods. The preferred block is from the Ford Lightning truck that has a factory roller cam already installed, but short of that, the '82-and-later block has the one-piece rear main seal, and you can buy a roller-cam retrofit kit with a small base circle so the lifters will clear the dog bones. Then you just drill and tap for the lifter galley spider. All the blocks require clearancing for the rod bolts when using the stroker crank, and Coast suggests using a main girdle for combinations approaching 500 hp and engine speeds nearing 7,000 rpm. For only $169, the girdle is cheap insurance. Another trick is finding a '69-'70 block that has thicker cylinder walls and will take a 0.060 bore for a rebuild later. You can also step up to a Ford Motorsports block for another $1,000 to get the thick walls, one-piece rear main seal, and roller cam in one package.

The cam choice is the Crane 248/256 at 0.050 duration hydraulic roller with 0.595/0.605 lift ground on a 110 lobe center. It may sound a little radical, but at 408 inches, Coast reports it is actually very docile and driveable. Coast uses the AFR 205 street/strip heads that flow 306 cfm right around 0.600 lift. It can be used out of the box after you set the seat pressure to match the cam. For carbureted applications, Coast uses the Edelbrock Victor Jr. single-plane intake, Holley HP 750, and an engine compression ratio of 9.5:1. The fuel-injected applications get 10.0:1-10.5:1 because they usually have better fuel and timing control.

The 408 will fit in your Fox-body or Cobra kit car with a cowl hood, and there are off-the-shelf headers for '64-'66 Mustangs. The Fox engine mounts are the same for the 351 and the 302, you'll just have to use a Fox oil pan.

Using 1 3/4 long-tube headers, this combination should make 520 at 6,300 rpm, which is the limit of the lifters, and 490 lb-ft at 4,200 rpm. The typical Fox-body will be around 3,200 pounds with a five-speed, and a 3.73 gear will give you mid-11s at 120 mph.

Coast High PerformanceTorrance, CA310/784-1010www.coasthigh.com

Parts List
BeskrywingPNBronPrys
AFR 205 cylinder heads1450Coast High Performance$1,699.00
Crane hydraulic roller cam13892Coast High Performance299.00
Roller retrofit kit11956Coast High Performance69.00
4340 4.00-inch forged crank 10009Coast High Performance599.00
Edelbrock Victor Jr. intake2981Summit Racing257.95
Probe 1.6 rocker arms 11273 Coast High Performance269.00 set
Reverse-dome pistons (9.5:1)12360-30 Coast High Performance535.00 set
Holley HP 750 carb0-80528-1Summit Racing637.95

Pontiac 455ciAt 4.210 inches, the Pontiac 455 has one of the largest factory strokes available. The bad news is that you just don't see them laying around like you used to. Instead, Bruce Fulper at PontiacEngines.com (aka Rock 'n' Roll Engineering) showed us that the easiest way to build a 455 is to buy any '67-'75 400 block and use a 455 crank. Fulper has experimented and says the two-bolt block will live up to 900 hp with proper care and a main stud kit. The '76-'79 blocks have thinner main webs and should be avoided for anything other than a mild street build.

If you do not have a stock 455 crank and block, a 4.210-inch-stroke aftermarket crank is available in two main diameters. Stock, which is 3.250 inches and will fit a 421, 428, or 455 block, or a 3.00-inch-diameter that will fit into a 326, 350, 389, or 400 block. These cranks inspected and balanced are only about $500. When using a 3.00-inch-main 455 crank, you will need to grind 0.100 off the block in the area where the front counterweight touches.

Fulper warns against using an aftermarket crank assembly that uses a 4.250 stroke but comes with a heavier 6.800 rod length for this combination. The Pontiac's stock rod length is 6.625 and in his opinion it's already too long. Moving from a 4.210 to a 4.250 only adds 0.040 to the stroke, which isn't enough to measure on a dyno. Retaining the stock-length rods and stroke makes replacing parts easier with the added benefit of a lighter rotating assembly for less money. Fulper recommends forged I-beam rods with ARP bolts.

The large bore and stroke can make a lot of torque, even with stock cast-iron heads, but even using ported cast-iron heads, it takes a large roller cam to make 500 hp. So the horsepower is limited by the head selection. The secret to Fulper's low-rpm power is in his ported Edelbrock castings. He buys them bare, ports them, and assembles them with some finish work on the valve angles and matching valve springs. The heads are priced at about $800 more than the complete unported version, but because the aftermarket crank is inexpensive and you don't need an aftermarket block, you can spend the money on head work instead.

Fulper also says the large dual-plane Edelbrock RPM intake manifold can feed an 800-horse 455 with a 150-shot of nitrous. You can use it unported, as the runner volumes are already large enough for the job.

For the cam, Fulper recommends the least expensive route using a custom solid flat-tappet grind with hydraulic lifters. Only certain grinds can do this, so don't try ordering a different profile without consulting Fulper or Dean Harvey at Comp Cams, who also worked on this combo. A recent 455 build using this cam made 500 hp at 4,800 rpm and more importantly 558 lb-ft at 3,000 rpm. With the right street converter, this combo will push any 3,500-pound car into the mid-11s and do it with a 3:55 gear. Here are the specs: Intake opens 10 degrees BTDC and closes at 46 degrees ABDC. Exhaust opens 56 degrees BBDC and closes 4 degrees ATDC. The duration is 236/240 at 0.050 on a 112 lobe separation angle installed on a 108. Fulper uses Harland Sharp 1.5 rockers for $225 a set or the more budget-minded Comp Cams 1.52 ratio roller-tip rockers.


GCD Comics Timeline

Joe Letterese (b. 1917)

Greil Marcus (b. 1945)

Dick Rogers (b. 1929)

Gena Rowlands (b. 1930)

井上桃太 (b. 1985)

Michael Barnaart (b. 1983)

James Montgomery Flagg (b. 1877)

Mark Gruenwald (b. 1953)

Carolyn Wells (b. 1862)

1862 June 18 - 1942 March 26
Carolyn Wells was an American writer and poet. Her first book, At the Sign of the Sphinx (1896), was a collection of charades. Her next publications were The Jingle Book and The Story of Betty (1899), followed by a book of verse entitled Idle Idyls (1900). After 1900, Wells wrote numerous novels and collections of poetry.

Wells wrote a total of more than 170 books. During the first ten years of her career, she concentrated on poetry, humor, and children's books. Then she devoted herself to mystery stories.

In addition to books, Wells also wrote for newspapers. Her poetry accompanies the work of some of the leading artists in illustration and cartooning, often in the form of Sunday magazine cover features that formed continuing narratives from week to week. Her first known illustrated newspaper work is a two part series titled Animal Alphabet, illustrated by William F. Marriner, which appeared in the Sunday comics section of the New York World. Many additional series ensued over the years, including the bizarre classic Adventures of Lovely Lilly (New York Herald, 1906–07). The last series she penned was Flossy Frills Helps Out (American Weekly, 1942), which appeared after her death.

吉住渉 (b. 1963)

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Gameplay

Metal Gear Solid

Liquid Snake in Metal Gear Solid.

When outside the control room of Metal Gear REX before Snake loses the PAL card, the player can contact Liquid, who will still answer disguised as Master Miller, even though Liquid will still appear to be sharing a conversation with Ocelot if the player looks at the control room in first person view (at this point, the player is unaware that Miller is really Liquid, and the player cannot look in First Person View while using the Codec. The player can, however, use the scope to view Liquid and call Master Miller).

When Solid Snake flashes back to when Meryl was shot, Liquid, disguised as Master Miller, tells Solid Snake "You can’t keep attacking yourself for things that happened in the past. That road leads to madness, believe me." As Liquid was trying to act in-character as Master Miller at the time he made this statement, it is unclear whether this was meant to imply that Liquid has gone through a period of extensive self hatred.

If Snake is killed during the torture session with Ocelot, Liquid will berate Ocelot for "doing it again," referring to Donald Anderson's death.

If Snake fails to defeat Liquid atop REX before the time limit runs out, Liquid will laugh maniacally during the Game Over screen. If the player pushes Liquid off REX in Die tweeling slange, Liquid will drop his dog tags.

Super Smash Bros. Brawl

Liquid (along with several other Metaal rat characters) made a cameo feature in Super Smash Bros. Brawl as a mention in a collectible trophy in Super Smash Bros. Brawl. According to the cardboard box trophy, "both Liquid and Solid Snake have a deep affection for cardboard." He also appeared as a sticker, depicting his Metal Gear Solid artwork, of which, when it is worn, the food effect will increase by 6.

Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots

Killing enough human enemies in Metal Gear Solid 4 will cause Old Snake to recall Liquid’s words to him at the end of Metal Gear Solid ("You enjoy all the killing, that's why!"). The shock from this episode causes Snake to throw up and his Psyche Gauge lowers drastically. Although, if you pause the game after Liquid's speech, then you will skip the vomiting and not lose any Psyche. Unlocking this flashback after downloading the trophy patch will also result in the trophy, "You Enjoy All the Killing, That's Why!", being unlocked. In Metal Gear Solid 4, Liquid's voice is heard over flashbacks taken from Die tweeling slange.

In Act 4, when arriving at the Supply Route where REX's remains are located, taking a photograph of the cockpit area with the camera will reveal a ghost of Liquid Snake.

During the opening stage of the final battle with Liquid Ocelot, images of Liquid from Metal Gear Solid flash on the screen, and the "Encounter" music from Metal Gear Solid gespeel word. Liquid Ocelot's attack patterns in this stage are similar to the ones Liquid Snake used in the fistfight atop REX.

Metal Gear Solid: The Phantom Pain

When facing Eli, when he says "Not yet Snake, it's not over yet!" it means he will be hiding in his room and knocking him down once there will result in a cutscene where he is defeated by Venom Snake.

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