Geskiedenis Podcasts

32 Eskader (RAF): Tweede Wêreldoorlog

32 Eskader (RAF): Tweede Wêreldoorlog

32 -eskader (RAF) tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Vliegtuie - Plekke - Groep en plig - Boeke

No.32 -eskader was een van die suksesvolste orkaan -eskaders van die Slag om Brittanje en het 102 oorwinnings in die eerste helfte van die geveg verdien. Dit verhuis daarna na die Middellandse See en neem deel aan Operasie Fakkel, die inval in Italië en die bevryding van Griekeland.

No.32 -eskader was nie een van die orkaan -eskaders wat na Frankryk gestuur is nie, maar na die Franse inval het die eskader wel patrollies aan die kus van Frankryk in België begin vlieg, terwyl 'n losskakel van die eskader uitgestuur is om by No.3 -eskader aan te sluit .

Die eskader het aan Operasie deelgeneem Dinamo, die ontruiming uit Duinkerken. Tydens die gevegte oor Dunkerk het Flt Ln M N Crossley en Plt Off V G Daw albei ses oorwinnings gekry. Die eskader het ná die ontruiming voortgegaan om oor die Franse kus te werk, en het vliegtuie van Bomber Command begelei.

No.32 -eskader was amptelik die suksesvolste vegvliegtuig tydens die eerste helfte van die Slag om Brittanje. Op 20 Julie het dit deelgeneem aan die suksesvolste verlowing tot op hede, een van die reeks konvooi -gevegte wat die eerste fase van die geveg (saam met nommer 615 -eskader) uitgemaak het. Daar word beweer dat vyftien Duitse vliegtuie vernietig is, en Duitse rekords ondersteun dertien daarvan.

Die eskader is gelei vir die eerste deel van die Slag van Brittanje deur Sqn Ldr "Johnny" Worrall. Hy is daarna as 'n senior beheerder in die Biggin Hill -beheerkamer geplaas en is vervang deur Michael "Red Knight" Crossley. Gedurende die tydperk van 12-25 Augustus 1940 word Crossley toegeken aan 12,5 kills. Teen die tyd dat die eskader vir 'n ruk noordwaarts beweeg het, was Crossley die top -aas in Fighter Command, en nr. 32 die suksesvolste vegvliegtuig, met 102 oorwinnings. Crossley is bekroon met die DSO en een van die vyf DFC's van die eskader. Gedurende hierdie tydperk van die geveg het die eskader vyf vlieëniers doodgemaak en een gevange geneem tydens een van die vroeë patrollies oor Frankryk.

Die eskader het in Desember 1940 na die suide teruggekeer nadat die daggevegte opgehou het. Dit het tot in Mei 1942 'n dagvliegtuig gebly, toe dit begin voorberei het vir inbraakmissies oor Frankryk, wat in Julie begin het.

Na twee maande van indringerpligte, is No.32 -eskader uit die voorste linie onttrek en toegewys aan die mag wat voorberei is vir operasie Fakkel. Dit bereik Algerië aan die begin van Desember 1942 en sou die res van die oorlog in die Middellandse See bly.

Tydens die gevegte in Noord -Afrika is die eskader gebruik om patrollies oor die Noord -Afrikaanse kus te vlieg. Die orkane is uiteindelik gedurende die somer van 1943 deur Spitfires vervang. Hulle is in Oktober 1943 na Italië gebring en in Oktober in die Salerno -gebied aangekom ('n tyd nadat die geveg gewen is). Die eskader het by hierdie geleentheid twee maande in Italië gebly en is daarna terug na Noord -Afrika.

Die eskader het in September 1944 na Italië teruggekeer en die eerste drie kwartale van die jaar 'n mengsel van vegvliegtuie en bomwerpersbegeleide uitgevoer. In Oktober 1944 het die Duitsers hulle aan Griekeland begin onttrek, en Britse magte het ingetrek om 'n kommunistiese oorname te voorkom. No.32 -eskader het 'n afdeling na Araxos in die weste van Griekeland gestuur, voordat dit op 17 Oktober na Athene verhuis het, waar gevegte teen die kommuniste uitgebreek het.

Die gevegte in Griekeland was ernstig genoeg om Churchill met Kersfees 1944 na Athene te trek, maar teen Februarie 1945 was dit genoeg om die eskader nr.32 na Palestina te verskuif, waar dit tot 1948 sou bly.

Vliegtuie
Oktober 1938-Julie 1941: Hawker Hurricane I
Julie 1941-November 1942: Hawker Hurricane IIB
November 1941-Augustus 1943: Hawker Hurricane IIC
April 1943-November 1943: Supermarine Spitfire VC
Junie 1943-Julie 1944: Supermarine Spitfire IX
Desember 1943-Julie 1944: Supermarine Spitfire VIII
Mei 1944-Julie 1944: Supermarine Spitfire VC

November 1944-Junie 1947: Supermarine Spitfire IX

Die data is duidelik verkeerd, want die eskader was in Oktober 1944 in Griekeland in aksie.

Ligging
21 September 1932-3 Januarie 1940: Biggin Hill
3 Januarie-8 Maart 1940: Gravesend
8-22 Maart 1940: Manston
27 Maart-26 Mei 1940: Biggin Hill
26 Mei-4 Junie 1940: Wittering
4 Junie-28 Augustus 1940: Biggin Hill
28 Augustus-15 Desember 1940: Acklington
15 Desember 1940-16 Februarie 1941: Middle Wallop
16 Februarie-17 April 1941: Ibsley
17 April-1 Junie 1941: Pembrey
1 Junie-26 November 1941: Hoek
26 November 1941-4 Mei 1942: Manston
4 Mei-14 Junie 1942: West Malling
14 Junie-7 Julie 1942: Friston
7 Julie-14 Augustus 1942: West Malling
14-20 Augustus 1942: Friston
20 Augustus-9 September 1942: West Malling
9 September-18 Oktober 1942: Honiley
18 Oktober-25 November 1942: Baginton

7 Desember 1942: Philippeville (Ground echelon)
17 Desember 1942-25 Mei 1943: Maison Blanche (Air and Ground)
25 Mei-19 Augustus 1943: Tingley
19 Augustus-1 Oktober 1943: La Sebala (Tunisië)
1 Oktober-20 November 1943: Montecorvino, Salerno (voltooi teen 28 Oktober)
20 November 1943-31 Januarie 1944: Reghaia (Algiers)
31 Januarie-14 Julie 1944: Foggia Main
14 Julie-23 September 1944: Canne (Calabrië)
23 September-15 Oktober 1944: Brindisi
2-17 Oktober 1944: Afskeiding van Araxos (Wes-Griekeland)
15-17 Oktober 1944: San Pancrazio (oostelike punt van Italië)
17 Oktober-9 November 1944: Kalamaki (Athene)
9 November 1944-25 Februarie 1945: Salonika - Sedes
25 Februarie-27 September 1945: Ramat David (Palestina)

Eskader kodes: KT, GZ

Plig
1939-1942: Fighter Command
1942-1945: Mediterreense Lugmag

Boeke

Boekmerk die bladsy: Heerlik Facebook Struikel


Eenheidsgeskiedenis: RAF Aqir Palestina

Die situasie in Palestina, wat sedert die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog versleg het, het tot 'n punt gekom toe die King David Hotel, die Britse hoofkwartier in Jerusalem, in Julie 1946 gebombardeer is, en 91 dood, waarvan 28 Britte.

Die gevolg was dat die Britse eenhede in Palestina versterk is. 'N Eskader van Halifaxes, nr. 620 later nr. 133 eskader, is na Aqir, die belangrikste RAF -basis in Palestina, verskuif om die RAF Airborne Support Unit te word. Die Glider Pilot Regiment was ook gevestig in Aqir en was toegerus met Horsa -sweeftuie. No.621-eskader het 'n groot deel van sy tyd daaraan bestee om anti-immigrantpatrollies, met die naam 'Sunburn', te vlieg, tussen Ciprus en Egipte vir tot twaalf uur op 'n slag. Hulle het enige onwettige skeepsvaart in die gebied onderskep en afgeneem, waarvan sommige ondoeltreffend op die Lancasters geskiet het. 'N Aantal van die eskader se vliegtuie is deur sabotasie beskadig, hoewel geen een verlore gegaan het nie.

REAF Spitfire Intussen het No.32 -eskader, toegerus met Spitfires en vers van die geveg in die Griekse burgeroorlog, op 25 Februarie by Ramat David naby Haifa aangekom. Vier maande later het 'n tweede Spitfire -eenheid, No.208 Squadron, by hom aangesluit. 'N Tempest -vleuel, bestaande uit die nr. 6, 8 en 249 eskaders, is in 1946 na die gebied gestuur. Terwyl nr.13 -eskader, toegerus met fotoverkenningsmuskiete, op 1 September by Ein Shemer hervorm is. No.13 het die taak gehad om skepe te soek en op te teken wat onwettige Joodse immigrante uit Europa bring. No.208 het na Petah Tiqva verhuis, waar sewe van die vliegtuie in Februarie 1946 deur Joodse terroriste opgeblaas is, wat die eskader amper buite werking gestel het totdat nuwe toerusting in Augustus van daardie jaar opgedaag het. Die nuwe vliegtuie was splinternuwe Spitfire FR18's.

RAF Transport In Oktober 1946 het 32 ​​-eskader na Ein Shemer in die suide verhuis, waar dit weer in Junie van die daaropvolgende jaar oorgeskakel het na die Spitfire FR18. Kort daarna is ses van die nuwe vliegtuie deur terreurbomme op die grond vernietig. Die Spitfire -eskaders se hooftaak was om na onwettige verskeping en patrollie teen terroriste te soek, maar hulle was dikwels in aksie ter ondersteuning van die 3de Infanteriebrigade, wat in Maart 1947 in die suide van die land ontplooi was. Teen die einde van die jaar, die Britte het hul voorneme aangekondig om hul mandaat so gou as moontlik te onttrek en die Verenigde Nasies het besluit om die land tussen die Arabiere en die Jode te verdeel, wat gelei het tot groter vyandigheid tussen die gemeenskappe.

Wreedhede is deur beide kante gepleeg en een van die ergste voorbeelde is die slagting van byna al die Arabiese inwoners van die dorp Deir Yassin, naby Jerusalem, deur Jode in April 1948. Hoewel Britse magte nie die aanval kon keer nie, het storms van No.249 -eskader, gewapen met vuurpyle, het die Joodse terroriste oorreed om na 'n paar dom aanvalle te vertrek. 'N Paar dae tevore het vier Spitfires van No.208 -eskader 'n terroriste -skuilplek in 'n brouery in Bat Yam (wat "dogter van die see" beteken) aangeval, vanwaar hul masjiengeweer die gebied oorheers en die Arabiere vasgepen het. Die brouerygebou het soos 'n woonstelblok gelyk en die Spitfires het per ongeluk 'n ander gebou aangeval, die drukwerk van E Lewin-Epstein Ltd. Gelukkig was dit 'n Saterdag en die perseel was leeg.

Op 3 Februarie 1947 het Operation 'Polly' begin met 'n halifax van nommer 133 eskader wat nie-noodsaaklike burgers uit Aqir ontruim het. Dit was nog 'n jaar voordat die Britse troepe met hul onttrekking begin het. Die RAF se rol was nou om die finale onttrekking te dek en om nie deel te neem aan 'n volskaalse Arabiese/Joodse oorlog nie. Die Union Jack is uiteindelik op 14 Mei 1948 in Palestina laat sak. Die volgende dag word die onafhanklike staat Israel uitgeroep. Binne enkele ure het Spitfire IX's van die Royal Egyptian Air Force Tel Aviv en Sde Nov Airfield aangeval. Een van hul vliegtuie het verlore geraak by die vuur, gered en daarna deur die nuutgeskepte Israeliese Lugmag gebruik.

Op die oggend van 22 Mei het REAF Spitfires die Ramat David -vliegveld aangeval waar die POF nog in besetting was om die finale terugtrekking van die oorblywende Britse magte te dek. Vyf Spitfires is op die grond vernietig en vier vlieëniers is dood. Nog 'n Spitfire is afgeskryf toe dit neergestort het tydens die opstyg. RAF Spitfires van 'n afdeling van die No.208 -eskader het twee van die Egiptiese aanvallers neergeskiet en 'n derde het verlore gegaan tydens die vuur van korporaal Farent van 52 Rifle Squadron, RAF Regiment met 'n Bren -geweer.
Die Egiptenare het uiteindelik om verskoning gevra vir die 'ongelukkige voorval' en die fout verduidelik deur te beweer dat hulle dink dat die vliegveld deur die Israeli's oorgeneem is. 'N Paar dae later verlaat die POF Palestina vir ewig.


Militêre eenhede soortgelyk aan of soos nommer 32 eskader RAF

Eskader van die Royal Air Force in RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. Tans verantwoordelik vir die opleiding van alle RAF-spanne wat toegewys is aan die Sentry AEW1, Sentinel R1, Shadow R1, RC-135W Rivet Joint en Poseidon MRA1. Wikipedia

Royal Air Force -stasie in South Ruislip, 2 km van Uxbridge in die Londense stadsdeel Hillingdon, westelike Groot -Londen, Engeland, ongeveer 10 km noord van die Heathrow -lughawe in Londen. Benewens lugmagvlugte hanteer die stasie ook baie private burgerlike vlugte. Wikipedia

Royal Air Force eskader. Die eskader het gedurende sy 90-jarige geskiedenis in 'n verskeidenheid rolle (waarneming, bombardement, vervoer en brandstofaanvulling) gedien. Wikipedia

101-eskader van die Royal Air Force bedryf die Airbus Voyager in die lug-tot-lug-hervul- en vervoerfunksies vanaf RAF Brize Norton, Oxfordshire. Gestig te Farnborough op 12 Julie 1917 met die Royal Aircraft Factory FE2b. Wikipedia

Nr. 18 -eskader van die Royal Air Force bedryf die Boeing Chinook van RAF Odiham. Ook bekend as No.18 Eskader. Wikipedia

Royal Air Force vliegopleidingseskader, wat die Grob Prefect T1 van RAF Cranwell, Lincolnshire, bedryf. Gestig op 8 Junie 1916 in Copmanthorpe, Yorkshire, toe dit van nr 33-eskader geskei is, en sy deeltydse opleidingsrol van die ouer-eenheid aangeneem het sodat nr. 33-eskader kon konsentreer op sy vernaamste pligte as 'n naggevegseenheid . Wikipedia

No 27 -eskader van die Royal Air Force bedryf die Boeing Chinook van RAF Odiham. Olifant vir die eskaderskyfie. Wikipedia

Nommer 6 -eskader van die Royal Air Force bedryf die Eurofighter Typhoon FGR.4 by RAF Lossiemouth. Voorheen toegerus met die SEPECAT Jaguar GR.3 in die nabye lugondersteuning en taktiese verkenningsrolle, en is gepos na RAF Coltishall, Norfolk tot April 2006, na RAF Coningsby totdat dit vir die eerste keer in sy geskiedenis op 31 Mei 2007 ontbind het. Wikipedia

Vliegende eskader van die Royal Air Force (RAF). Die eskader hervorm in Julie 2018 as 'n gesamentlike RAF/Qatari Emri Air Force eskader. Wikipedia

Air Mobility Operational Conversion Unit (AMOCU). Verantwoordelik vir opleiding van vliegtuigbemanning op C-130J Hercules, A400M Atlas en C17 Globemaster. Wikipedia

Vliegende eskader van die Royal Air Force bied elementêre vliegopleiding met die Grob Tutor T.1 van RAF Wittering. Ontbind in 1919 met die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Wikipedia

Oudste toegewyde bomwerper -eskader van die Royal Air Force. Dit is in Desember 1914 gestig en het gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen, insluitend by die Somme en Passchendaele. Wikipedia

Eskader van die Royal Air Force. Tot Oktober 2009 bedryf dit die Boeing Sentry AEW1 Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) vliegtuie van RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. Wikipedia

Vliegende eskader van die Royal Air Force. Die eenheid is op 1 September 1915 gestig as 'n Royal Flying Corps -eskader en het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen. Wikipedia

Nommer 8-eskader (soms geskryf as nr. VIII-eskader) van die Royal Air Force bedryf die Boeing E-3D Sentry AEW1 (AWACS) van RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. Bestaan ​​uit drie Sentry AEW1's, vergeleke met sewe wat oorspronklik bestel is in die laat 1980's. Wikipedia

Battle Honours word deur die Sovereign toegeken aan die eskaders van die Royal Air Force om die rol van die eskader in 'n spesifieke operasie te herdenk. Geërf deur die RAF van sy voorgangers van die weermag en vloot by die oprigting daarvan in 1918. Wikipedia

Eskader van die Royal Air Force. Die eerste eskader wat 'n VTOL -vliegtuig gevlieg het. Wikipedia

Groot -lugmag van die Verenigde Koninkryk. Gestig teen die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog op 1 April 1918 en word die eerste onafhanklike lugmag ter wêreld deur die Royal Flying Corps en die Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) te hergroepeer. Wikipedia

Eskader van die Royal Air Force. Dit het onlangs die Panavia Tornado GR4 van RAF Lossiemouth as nr. XV (reserwe) eskader bedryf. Wikipedia

No 4 Squadron, soms geskryf as No. IV Squadron, van die Royal Air Force bedryf die BAE Hawk T2 in die opleidingsrol van RAF Valley. Eskader nr. 4 word in 1912 in Farnborough gevorm as deel van die Royal Flying Corps. Wikipedia

Eskader van die Royal Air Force wat die General Atomics MQ-9A Reaper onbemande vliegtuig bestuur vanaf RAF Waddington sedert hervorming op 26 Oktober 2012. Die eenheid het eers op 10 Januarie 1915 as deel van die Royal Flying Corps gevorm en daarna die Martinsyde gevlieg G.100, die Royal Aircraft Factory FE2, die SPAD VII en SPAD XIII, die Sopwith Dolphin tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Wikipedia

No.70 of LXX Squadron RAF bied strategiese vervoer. Gestig op 22 April 1916 te Farnborough en was toegerus met die Sopwith 1½ Strutter. Wikipedia

Nommer 30 -eskader van die Royal Air Force bedryf die tweede generasie Lockheed Martin Hercules C4/C5 van RAF Brize Norton, Oxfordshire. Nie meer op die RAF 's lys van eskaders of op RAF Brize Norton 's lys van eskaders nie. Wikipedia

7 -eskader van die Royal Air Force bedryf die Boeing Chinook HC6 van RAF Odiham, Hampshire. Gestig op Farnborough Airfield op 1 Mei 1914 as die laaste eskader van die Royal Flying Corps wat voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gevorm is, maar is sedertdien verskeie kere ontbind en hervorm, die eerste na slegs drie maande bestaan, laasgenoemde so vroeg as 28 September 1914. Wikipedia

Toets- en evaluasie -eskader gebaseer in RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. Gevorm as deel van die Royal Flying Corps in London Colney as 'n vegvliegtuig op 1 September 1917. Wikipedia


406423 vliegbeampte Colin Levings, nr. 512 eskader (RAF)

Colin Levings, gebore in Glasgow, Skotland, op 23 Julie 1911, was die seun van Agnes en Ferdinand Levings. Colin se pa het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog 'n medalje vir onderskeidende gedrag ontvang, en toe die gesin na Nieu -Seeland emigreer, het hy 'n band met die weermag behou en in die laat 1920's diens gedoen by die North Auckland Mounted Rifles.

Levings verhuis daarna na Subiaco, Wes -Australië, en trou op 31 Januarie 1939 met Minnie Vennetta Louise. Hulle het 'n dogter, Colleen Minnie Levings, gebore in Maart 1941.

Voordat hy in Desember 1940 by die RAAF aangesluit het, het hy pastorale werk gedoen, as 'n fisiese balansinstrukteur en as mynwerker in Kalgoorlie gewerk. Na sy inskrywing het hy begin opleiding as navigator.

Hy vertrek in September 1941 na Europa, deel van die Empire Air Training Scheme. Levings was een van byna 27 500 RAAF -vlieëniers, seevaarders, draadlose operateurs, skutters en ingenieurs wat gedurende die loop van die oorlog by RAF -eskaders of Australiese eskaders in Brittanje aangesluit het.

Levings het in Kenia opgelei voordat hy by die RAF -eskader nr. 45 in die Midde -Ooste aangesluit het. Dit was besig om voor te berei om in die beginfase van die veldtog na Birma in die oorlog na Birma gepos te word.

Tydens die Britse terugtrekking uit Birma het die eskader nr. 45 bombardemente op die Japannese uitgevoer toe hulle van Magwe na Mandalay na Lashio verhuis het. Uiteindelik het die eskader na 'n vliegveld naby Calcutta in Indië verhuis waar hulle operasies teen die Japannese in Birma gevlieg het. Na 12 maande het Levings by No. 34 -eskader aangesluit, met Blenheims in die Birma -teater gevlieg en in Desember 1943 na Brittanje gestuur.

Vroeg in 1944 het Levings by nommer 512 -eskader aangesluit, 'n vervoerskader wat as 'n taktiese Dakota -eskader heropgelei het. Hulle sou sweeftuie sleep en valskermsoldate laat val tydens die komende landings in Normandië, en grondmagte in Wes -Europa ondersteun.

Op 21 Maart 1944, nadat hy van RAF Broadwell in Oxfordshire opgestyg het, het Levings se Dakota in 'n beboste heuwel neergestort wat deur 'n lae wolkbedekking bedek was. Levings, sy twee Britse bemanningslede en twee passasiers is almal dood.

Hy was 32. Sy lyk is van die ongeluksterrein gevind en begrawe in die Brookwood Military Cemetery in Brittanje.

Die vlieënde offisier Colin Levings word herdenk op die Subiaco Fallen Soldiers Memorial in Wes -Australië, en die Australian War Memorial Honor Roll, onder byna 40 000 Australiërs wat gesterf het terwyl hulle in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen het.

Lachlan Grant, historikus, afdeling vir militêre geskiedenis

Beeld: Londen, Engeland. 1944-01-07. Loodsbeampte Colin Levings (links) van Kalgoorlie, WA en vlieënde offisier Ken Gardiner van Highgate Hill, Qld, albei van die RAAF, wat pas in Londen aangekom het (nog steeds met hul tropiese uitrusting aan) nadat hy 'n toer deur Army Air Operations in RAF voltooi het Blenheim -eskaders in Birma. Hulle het na 'n BBC -ateljee gekom om 'n uitsending oor hul ervarings te gee in hierdie reeks programme in die BBC Pacific Service.


Voormalige RAF -stasie, Hawkinge

In 1980 verkry die museum deel van een van die laaste plekke van Brittanje se epiese oorlewingstryd in 1940, wat die grootste luggeveg in die geskiedenis sou wees. RAF Hawkinge was die naaste Royal Air Force-stasie aan Frankryk wat deur die vyand beset was, en die Luftwaffe-vegters in die Pas-de-Calais was slegs 6 minute vlieg tyd weg. Uiteraard was dit en die omliggende distrik ook die doelwit van die bomwerpers van die Luftwaffe, en is daarby ook blootgestel aan langafstandskanaalafskietings van die Duitse oewerbatterye langs die Franse kus. Nie verniet was die Dover- en Folkestone -gebied bekend as 'Hellfire Corner' nie. Ondanks die jare wat verby is, kan die besoeker van vandag nog steeds die atmosfeer van die verlede van die vliegveld geniet met die bakens en die oorblywende geboue, wat herinner aan die gevaarlike dae. Voor die ontwikkeling van die vliegveld in 1993 kon 'n mens nog steeds die Engelse kanaal en die Franse kus vanaf hierdie historiese plek sien. Dit is die verhaal van RAF Hawkinge:

Toe die Slag om Brittanje op 10 Julie 1940 begin, bestaan ​​RAF Hawkinge reeds twintig jaar. Vroeër is 'n klein veldjie, oorspronklik in besit van Lord Radnor, gebruik deur W.B Megone, 'n Nederlandse lugvaartpionier, wat, hoewel hy geweier het om sy eie bykomstighede te loods, 'n vriend, Victor Hunt, aangespoor het om verskillende vliegpogings te onderneem. Die meerderheid was redelik onsuksesvol, alhoewel die vlieënde masjien, genaamd 'Mayfly', by een of twee geleenthede eintlik teësinnig in die lug gespring het. Die eerste aangetekende vlug vanaf Hawkinge was in Januarie 1910.

Megone vertrek net voordat die Royal Flying Corps in 1915 aankom om 'n primitiewe vliegveld te vestig vanwaar hulle verskillende vliegtuie heen en weer oor die Engelse Kanaal sou vervoer. Dit was 'n bietjie treffersaak en 'n hele aantal vlieëniers het hul pad verloor, veral toe 'n seemis om hulle toesluit. Lugnavigasie was 'n duimreël en as vlieëniers 'n kompas gehad het, het hulle hulself as baie gelukkig geag.

Motorstorting was om allerhande redes algemeen. Daar was een keer dat 'n ongelukkige vlieënier agterkom dat hy oor die Duitse linies gevlieg het. Hy het uiteindelik nie meer brandstof gekry nie en is gevange geneem.

Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het drie jaar lank gewoed voordat die vliegveldgeboue 'n meer permanente uitkyk gekry het. Die eerste geboue wat opgegaan het, was die groot Belfast Trussed -hangars. Voorheen was die klein vliegveld bekend as Folkestone, maar dit was nou die 'Aerodrome Despatch Section Hawkinge'. Die geluid van wipende propellers en sputtering -enjins het 'n nuwe en nogal unieke fassinasie vir die Hawkinge -dorpenaars gebring. Deur sy strategiese ligging het die herboude vliegveld 'n belangrike skakel geword in die Britse verdedigingstelsel, en nadat die wapenstilstand onderteken is, het dit die basis geword vir die beroemde eskader No.25 (F) wat Sopwith Snipes vlieg.

In die vreedsame jare tussen die twee wêreldoorloë het eskadervliegtuie van die Royal Air Force die kleurrykste geword, veral die vegvliegtuie, wat met allerhande tekens geteister is. Boonop het die vlieënde kundigheid van die eskadervlieëniers trots simbolies geword van alle vredestydse opleiding. Hawkinge word veral onthou vir die skouspel van 'n manjifieke gesinchroniseerde formasie wat vlieg toe eskadervliegtuie met bunting vasgemaak is. Aerobatics, hetsy deur 'n vliegtuigvorming of deur 'n enkele vliegtuig, was 'n alledaagse gebeurtenis. Hoogaangedrewe vliegtuigmotors het die rustigheid van die weiveld en die baan verwoes, lank voordat die Luftwaffe opgedaag het om te veg. Gedurende die kleurvolle jare van vredestyd het No.25 -eskader hul vliegtuie verander toe nuwe ontwerpe bekendgestel is.

Toe die Sopwith Snipe -vegter uitgedien raak, het die Gloster Grebe dit vervang. Dit was 'n aangename enkel-sitplek vegter, maar het 'n kommerwekkende vleuel-fladdering wat 'n paar probleme vir die vlieëniers veroorsaak het. Toe kom die swaarmoedige Armstrong Whitworth Siskin, die all-weather-vegter met 'n nuutwarm verhitte kajuit wat die ontydige dood van ten minste een vlieënier tot gevolg gehad het.

Die Sidney Camm wat Hawker Fury ontwerp het, was die volgende en was van die begin af 'n wenner as gevolg van sy vaartbelynde romp. Dit was amptelik bekend as 'n 'Interceptor' en is later opgedateer en die Super Fury genoem.

Toe, in 1938, gee die onvergelykbare Fury plek vir die Hawker Demon tweesitplek vegter. Die demone moes van 'n ander eskader ontvang word, in plaas daarvan om 'n nuwe voorraad te wees. Die nuwe Gloster Gladiator kom 'n paar maande op die toneel voordat dit vervang word deur die twee enjin Bristol Blenheim IF? Vegvliegtuig. Die grasvliegveld was ongeskik vir so 'n vliegtuig en die eskader is beveel om na Northolt naby Londen te trek.

No.25 (F) Squadron was negentien jaar by RAF Hawkinge en het 'n deel van die tyd fasiliteite gedeel met No.2 Army Co-Operation Squadron. Toe hierdie eskader in 1934 uit Manston aankom, het hulle met die Hawker Audax-tweevliegtuig gevlieg, maar dit is verander na die Hawker Hector.

Om met die Royal Air Force te vlieg, was 'n groot avontuur vir jong manne wat opwinding soek. Nou sou daar 'n verandering kom, aangesien Hitler se leërs nader aan die Franse kus gekom het. Ewe skielik het die verdediging van vliegveld baie belangrik geword. Duisende sandsakke is verkry en gevul. Masjiengeweerpale, uitgrawings en skuilings het skielik rondom die vliegveld ontstaan. Elke gebou is met donker en bruin verf gekamoefleer. Dit was in teenstelling met die wit wasgoed wat gedurende die dertigerjare geheers het. Die bloeiende roostuine en struike lyk uitmekaar.

Masjiengewere en die mobiele 40 mm Bofors-lugafweergewere het gou aangekom om hul posisies in te neem. Vensters en deure is beskerm deur hope sandsakke. Teen Junie 1940 was die vliegveld min of meer gereed vir Hitler se oorlog. Dit was ten volle in werking toe die ontruiming van Duinkerken plaasgevind het. Die paar weermag-samewerkings-eskader wat nog in die land oorbly, is gou gereël om van Hawkinge af te vlieg om ammunisie, kos en water aan beleërde troepe by Calais en Boulogne aan die Franse kus te gaan afgee.

Onder die beheer van Fighter Command, het Hawkinge 'n satellietvliegveld van Biggin Hill Sector Station geword. Dit was reeds in die 'voorste linie' toe die Luftwaffe-aktiwiteit in die lug oor Kent toegeneem het.

Ons verdedigende agtgeweer vegvliegtuie van Hurricanes en Spitfires het elke dag met die eerste lig na Hawkinge gevlieg om van die dagbreek tot die skemer hul uitstappies te bestuur, wanneer hulle na die binneland terugval na relatiewe veiligheid. Binnekort was daar luggevegte tussen 2.000 en 20.000 voet. Daar was baie voordele van individuele dapperheid - sommige daarvan is nog nooit gedokumenteer nie.

Hulle verhale het saam met hulle gesterf toe hulle beswyk het vir die 'crack' Duitse veg- en bomwerpereenhede. Die Slag om Brittanje was ongetwyfeld die laaste tydperk in die Engelse geskiedenis, waar 'n mens waarskynlik 'n nabye luggeveg tussen twee elite lugmagte sou aanskou.

Luftwaffe -vlieëniers was moedige en hardnekkige teenstanders. Ons eie Britse, Gemenebest en Geallieerde vlieëniers is gereken as manne van uitstaande kwaliteite, ondersteun deur goeie opleiding, toerusting en leierskap. So 'n kombinasie, gekenmerk deur hul eie merk van moed en aggressie, het hulle beslis 'n lewendige onoorwinlikheid gebied as hulle weet dat hulle vreeslik in die minderheid is. Statistieke het bewys dat ons verdedigende eskaders sonder twyfel keer op keer oor die grense van uithouvermoë gestrek is.

Die eerste orkaan- en Spitfire -eskaders wat gedurende die somer van 1940 by Hawkinge aangekom het, het gewoonlik omstreeks 05:00 afgekom toe grondspanne net uit die bed gekruip het. Die vlieëniers het hul ontbyt langs hul vliegtuie geëet, waar valskerms op hul stertvliegtuie gerus was, gereed vir enige noodgeval. Hulle wag vir die Tannoy om die 'Scramble' te gee. Minstens ses en twintig vegvliegtuie het Hawkinge gedurende die somer van 1940 gebruik en het No's 32, 64, 72, 79, 111, 141, 245, 501, 610 en 615 ingesluit.

Dit het 'n alledaagse gebeurtenis geword om te sien hoe vegters op die vliegveld neerstort. Die vlieëniers het geworstel met vliegtuie wat beskadig is deur 'n kanonskiet en met masjiengeweerkoeëls gehark is. Vlerke, ailerons, romp en roere is dikwels aan flarde geskeur. Oormatige verhitting van enjins, olierige rook wat beland het, het dikwels geen sigbaarheid by die landing uitgesluit nie. Die onderstel kon by die landing nie toesluit nie weens die verlore hidroulika. Baie ongelukke was nogal katastrofies. Die brandweer- en ambulanspersoneel het nog nooit sulke groot verwarring beleef nie. Gewonde vlieëniers en vliegtuigbemanning is saggies uit hul vuil kajuit gelig. Een of twee het gesterf toe hulle land. Die klein lykshuis, slegs vierkante meter, was nog nooit ontwerp om soveel dodelike gewonde vlieëniers te huisves nie.

Ooggetuieverslae is volop oor luggevegte en ongelukke. Een getuie onthou 'n Spitfire, '... wat soos 'n mossie oor die rand van die vliegveld sweef voordat hy deur 'n draadheining vlieg. Die doringdraad draai soos katoen om 'n spoel om die skroef. Die Spitfire val op sy neus en doen 'n volledige salto. ' 'N Ander getuie onthou dat hy die C.O. van nr.79 -eskader, eskaderleier Joslin, word neergeskiet net nadat hy van Hawkinge opgestyg het. '

'Ek het gesien hoe die orkane van die vliegveld af klim en ver agter die res was 'n eensame orkaan wat probeer inhaal. Maar hy het dit nooit reggekry nie. Terwyl ek kyk, is daar 'n groot flits, toe val die vegter stukkend uit die lug. Die mede. nooit 'n kans gehad nie. '

Met soveel aktiwiteite wat aan die gang was, het die lugafweerpistole 'sneller gelukkig' geword. Hulle het begin skiet op enige vliegtuig wat binne hul spesifieke gebied gekom het. Gevolglik is 'n aantal van ons eie vlieëniers met tragiese gevolge neergeskiet. Gepraat van tragedies, die een wat betrekking het op die No.141 -eskader, moet beslis die aangrypendste wees. Hulle is omstreeks middagete op 19 Julie van die vliegveld af weggejaag en het pas die middel van die Engelse Kanaal bereik toe hulle deur die beroemde Richthofen Geschwader gestamp is. Vier Defiants het verlore gegaan, in die eerste aangee neergeskiet. Nog twee sou val op die gewere van die Messerschmitt Bf 109E's. Van die eskader is tien vlieëniers en vliegtuigbeamptes vermoor of as 'vermis' geplaas.

Oorlewende vlieëniers, waarvan die meeste nou verby is, hetsy van die Slag van Brittanje of enige ander tyd, het gemengde gevoelens gehad oor vlieg vanaf Hawkinge. Sommige het dit met liefde onthou, ander het dit met afgryse onthou vanweë hul eie individuele en besondere gevegservarings.

Op 12 Augustus 1940 sou Hawkinge die eerste van ontelbare aanvalle op die vliegveld ontvang, en die volgende is die verslag uit die stasie se Operations Record Book. By hierdie geleentheid is die vliegveld aangeval deur Erprobungsgruppe 210, 'n Luftwaffe -presisievegter -bomwerper -eenheid, wat Messerschmitt Bf 110's en Bf 109s gevlieg het (nie die Junkers Ju 88's wat in die Operations Record Book aangehaal word nie).

"Bomaanval deur Ju88's teen die stasie is om 17.30 uur uitgevoer en het ongeveer 10 minute geduur. Een hangar, nr. 3, is byna heeltemal verwoes, terwyl 'n ander, nr.5, gedeeltelik verwoes is. 'N Aantal bomme van swaar kaliber Die vliegveld en geboue is tydens die aanval met die masjien geskiet.

Die brand is vinnig onder beheer gebring deur RAF -personeel bygestaan ​​deur die plaaslike AFS (Hulpbrandweer). Stasie -werkswinkels is verwoes. Twee huise in die Airmen's Married Quarters wat deur vlieëniers beset is, is vernietig. Agt-en-twintig kraters is op die vliegveld gemaak, waarvan die langste 23 x 22 x 23 meter diep is en die kleinste 10 x 10 x 8 cm diep (3,04 m x 3,04 m x 2,4 m) mtrs), maar die vliegveld is nie heeltemal ondiensbaar gemaak nie. Die herstelwerk aan die oppervlak is onmiddellik begin deur die RE's (Royal Engineers) wat reeds vir sulke werk aangeheg is.

Grondverdediging was verras en geen gewere, behalwe twee Hispano, is afgevuur nie. Die hoogte van die aanvallende vliegtuig was sodanig dat dit onprakties was om die PACU in werking te stel. (Parachute & Cable Unit- a device which fired a rocket up to about 2,000 feet, at which height a large & small parachute deployed, the larger one carrying the rocket and the smaller carrying a 1,000 foot cable at the end of which was a mine. The idea was for the aircraft's wing to catch the cable and drag it across the wing until the mine made contact and blew the wing off). Two civilians employed by the Contractors of Works and three airmen were killed. Six airmen received severe injuries and were admitted to the Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury. The casualties occurred to the personnel employed in No.3 Hangar. Two Spitfire aircraft, under repair, were damaged, whilst one or two others were struck by splinters. Two non-operational aircraft on charge were damaged but repairable."

The attacking aircraft suffered no losses. The attack left seven men dead within feet of where the Museum stands today. No.3 Hangar received several direct hits and the towering iron Belfast Hangar doors came off their top runners and crushed to death an airman and two civilian employees, Mr Brisley and Mr McCaister. Within the body of the hangar Corporal McColl and three more airmen were killed. The site of this death and destruction, for many years after the war, was the Hawkinge Parish Council's football pitch and is now been redeveloped into housing.

Within three days Hawkinge was receiving its second major attack of the war, this time by the dreaded Junkers Ju 87B 'Stukas'. The gull-winged dive-bombers were peeling off and screaming down upon running airmen amidst the deafening crash of gun fire. Sizzling hot shrapnel cut into trees and buildings as smoke spiralled aloft in a huge grey blanket of cloud. Seven 'Stukas' were shot down, two of them by one of our own pilots, Flt/Lt. John A. A. Gibson, but his Hurricane was hit by return fire, forcing him to bail out.

And so, the battles raged on. Every day brought new traumatic experiences to test Fighter Command and its personnel. Our pilots were fighting gallantly while the hard pressed groundcrew were nursing ailing aeroplanes until midnight and sometimes beyond. Everyone worked as a team, men and machines, flesh and steel.

By the time Hitler's Luftwaffe had turned from bombing the aerodromes to bombing London and other towns and cities, Hawkinge had its own fighter reconnaissance squadron in residence. This was originally known as No.421 Flight, later becoming No.91 (Nigerian) Squadron, better known as the 'Jim Crow' Squadron. The pilots were a mixture of nationalities. There were French, Belgian, American and Canadian amongst their ranks. They became famous for their particular methods of attacking just about every sort of enemy target, including shipping and Luftwaffe airfields close to the English Channel.

Towards the end of 1941 No.277 (Air Sea Rescue) Squadron, flying Lysander, Defiant and the amphibious Walrus, took up their base at Hawkinge. They scoured the English Channel from one end to the other picking up 'ditched' airmen, both German and English, and later on American bomber crews. Because of the daring 'Jim Crow' attacks the Germans retaliated with sporadic fighter-bomber raids on Hawkinge. The Messerschmitt Bf 109s usually arrived over the airfield at midday, dropping their single high explosive bomb amongst the station buildings and shooting up the dispersed Spitfires. They usually operated either singly or in pairs. Flying at sea level they were undetected by our radar units which resulted in the surprise attacks. Airmen were often caught out in the open before they could dive for cover.

From 1942, through to 1943, the aerodrome became a 'Jump-off' airfield for numerous intruder missions, for it was now the RAF's turn to blast the German airfields, fuel dumps, harbour installations, railways, roads and all lines of communications.

In the autumn of 1943 the 'Jim Crow' squadron left. They had achieved many distinctions, not least the formidable array of pilot decorations. They had gained many 'kills' and lost some very good pilots. The unit was regarded as outstanding. Squadron personalities included the Frenchman 'Moses' Demozay, Jean Maridor and De Moline, the South African 'Chris' Le Roux, the New Zealanders Spurdle and Pannel, and the Americans 'Art' Donahue and Young.

By 1944, the airfield had been host to many fighter squadrons of different nationalities such as Czech, Dutch, Belgian, Canadian and Australian. They all flew on bomber escorts, reconnaissance and intruder missions and, by July that year, they were knocking the dreaded 'Doodlebugs' out of the skies over Kent. It is interesting to record that of all the aircraft to fly from RAF Hawkinge during the Second World War the Spitfire,that graceful fighter which has become a legend in the Royal Air Force history, remained dominant throughout.

When the Jet age was upon us with the development of the Gloster Meteor, this old grass airfield became obsolete almost overnight.

And so, after hostilities with Germany ceased, the aerodrome changed from a thriving Fighter Station to a home for the WAAF Technical Training Depot. In December 1955, the Home Gliding Centre was set up at the aerodrome to train ATC cadets who arrived for one week courses under the expert guidance of RAF pilots and civilian instructors. The Women's Royal Air Force, as they later became known, were still using the buildings when the aerodrome finally closed on 8th December 1961. By 1964 the Ministry of Defence could find no further use for RAF Hawkinge and it was offered for sale by auction on 9th July.

Seven years later, in June 1968, Harry Saltzman arrived with his entourage to transform the old aerodrome back into its former wartime glory, to produce scenes for the classic motion film 'Battle of Britain.'

Now if you ever visit the Museum and stand within its grounds on the site of the former airfield, you will almost certainly sense its history. It doesn't require much imagination to conjure up a picture in your mind of the Hurricanes and Spitfires and their pilots who were revered and respected for their individual gallantry. If you listen hard enough, you can hear the crackle of a Merlin exhaust and the voices of the airmen still haunting this former airfield. Hawkinge achieved immortal fame and earned the gratitude of a nation at war and this is why it was critical that we created the Museum's home here, amongst some of its original wartime buildings.

(Based on the book" Airfields of the Battle of Britain – Hawkinge" by Roy Humphreys)

If you would like any more information about the Kent Battle of Britain Museum and its team of volunteers please e-mail us, thanks.


No. 32 Squadron (RAF): Second World War - History

The B-24 Liberator in RAF Coastal Command Service: with focus on Aircraft of No. 311 (Czechoslovak) Squadron RAF

Catalogue Number, Description and ISBN:

The B-24 Liberator in RAF Coastal Command Service: with focus on Aircraft of No. 311 (Czechoslovak) Squadron RAF

Authors: Pavel Türk & Miloslav Pajer (translation by Petr Janda)

Illustrators: (profiles) Tomas Poruba & Jaroslav Farkas (other) Tomas Poruba & Jan Poruba

Contents & Media:

320 pages, hardcover A-4 portrait format, 550 photographs, 70 colour profiles, plus other illustrations. Four data-rich appendices and a complete list of primary and secondary sources are appended to the back of the book.

See the publisher&rsquos website for local distribution / availability &ndash typically £70.00.

Review Type:

Thoroughly read, binding thoroughly tested over a period of months.

Seminal research &ndash academic-level material presented in a modeler-friendly way. More coherent technical detail particulars &ldquogen&rdquo for ASW Liberators than any other single book to date. Hundreds of the photos are published here for the first time. Profiles are not of the &ldquocookie cutter&rdquo variety&hellip the illustrators have taken the time to apply the correct known details (aerials, guns, markings, etc) to each subject.

Disadvantages:

It is a heavy book &ndash well constructed and beautifully produced. The high quality binding is sure to be put to the test by Coastal and Liberator fan owners alike. JaPo books are usually a one-shot deal. Once they&rsquore gone, used market prices tend to soar.

Despite some minor unconventional usage (some are not quite technical errors) of the language, the text is quite readable. The translator did a very good job. Other ESL (English as a second language) environment publishers could learn a lot from JaPo.

Sit this beside the Vincent and Carey volumes (see below) on your shelf and you&rsquoll have a considerable wealth of anti-sub, anti-shipping Liberator gen at your fingertips.


Reviewed by Terry Higgins


HyperScale is proudly supported by Squadron

FirstRead

The Consolidated Model 32 was the largest single aircraft type production programme in the United States during the Second World War. If production infrastructure (people and plant) and the collateral effort (the sheer quantities of metal, electrical wiring, electronic installations, engines, et al.) are taken into account, it could rightly be considered to have been the world&rsquos largest such effort of the era.* With the majority of the nearly 18,500 machines produced becoming B-24 bombers for the United States Army Air Forces, it is not surprising that much of what has been published about this important aircraft focuses on the operational history in that primary role, accompanied, in some, instances by coverage of the technological / industrial achievement story. Speaking from both an operational/technology history buff and an accuracy-concerned scale modeler perspectives, the &lsquoLib&rsquo is a complicated aircraft to sort out in terms of variant and sub-variant detail changes, production line and user-level mods, etc., I believe we&rsquore generally well served by the vast range of publications already committed to print on the type. But what of the specialist versions that saw ample service in a small number of other wartime air arms as maritime patrol (general reconnaissance in RAF nomenclature), photographic reconnaissance, and military transport aircraft?

Within the aggregate of the titles alluded to above, only a very small proportion of the overall page count deviates from the general themes of level bomber operational history and technical development. Still, the rich history represented by other roles &ndash especially so the maritime specialist variants used in the RAF, RCAF, USAAF, and USN &ndash has not been entirely reduced to sidebar status. Some of the bomber-focused titles do cover the maritime variants, but I&rsquom always left with a sense of lacking in thoroughness. Thankfully the seminal works of authors like Carl Vincent et. al. (Kanada&rsquos Wings vol.2: Consolidated Liberator and Boeing Fortress), James Oughton et. al. (The Liberator in Royal Air Force and Commonwealth Service, Air-Britain), and Alan Carey (a number of excellent volumes on the theme of US Navy Liberator and Privateer operations in the Second World War) go long way towards a better bigger picture. It is in such works that we come to realize the importance of the aircraft&rsquos anti-submarine (ASW) role (and also, in the case of Carey&rsquos body of work, the Pacific anti-shipping role).

The Liberator&rsquos ASW contribution was pivotal to the closing of the air-cover gap that had, in the early years of the Battle of the Atlantic, afforded a degree of sea dominance to the submarine force. Later maritime Liberators also played a decisive role either directly in, or on the periphery of, what may be considered to be more relatively minor ASW efforts &ndash successful Bay of Biscay Cork patrols during Operation Neptune and long-endurance Indian Ocean sweeps are but two examples. As veteran RAF Liberator captain and ASW ace, S/L Terence Bulloch, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, points out in wrapping his foreword to this book, the Liberator &ldquo&helliphas been credited in the RAF and US Navy to have been the most successful U-boat killer during World War II.&rdquo

And that it most certainly was. This book has much to contribute to our understanding of that history.

In the two usefully informative introductory chapters &ndash &ldquoRAF Coastal Command&rdquo and &ldquoRAF Liberators&rdquo &ndash the reader is provided with the essential background for understanding the more detailed airframe-specific and squadron history accounts that follow. To my mind, this has become &lsquosection one&rsquo of the book although it is not explicitly labeled as such in the table of contents (incidentally, the ToC is presented at the back of the book, which may seem odd to most non-European readers). The wonderful trend of heavy, contextually appropriate illustration that dominates all sections of this book starts here. A well-drawn map, clear tables, and richly captioned photographs are the perfect compliment to the text.

Section two, which begins what appears to be the opening passage of an unnumbered third chapter as &ldquoCombat operations of Liberators with RAF Coastal Command&rdquo, is a succinct brief on the extent of the RAF&rsquos maritime Liberator use. Given that header wording, the quarter page (in two columns) of text is a little confusing in that it makes explicit reference to maritime units outside of Coastal Command (i.e. No. 354 Squadron in India). However, as it turns out this is all merely contextual material and a flip of the page clears things up. From there the section (chapter?) is divided into unit-specific sub-sections: summaries of the Liberator aircraft complement of each of the ten operational squadrons and three training units that operated the type within RAF Coastal Command. Each starts with a brief pre-Liberator history, usually one or two compact paragraphs, before drilling down to significant actions, aircraft inventory changes and, where appropriate or known, details of onboard mission equipment.

Most of these are presented across two to six pages each. However, that for 111 (Coastal) Operational Training Unit ((C)OTU) is a notable exception at some two dozen pages. The varied lengths appear to be due in part to the extent of the narrative text and in part to the extent of the supporting graphical material. Ample photographic coverage is provided throughout. Many photos feature captions that are often complete stories in themselves &ndash textual snapshots of a particular airframe, crew, significant action sortie, or a lucid description of some technical detail or another all wonderful stuff for the technophile and operational history enthusiast alike. One to four (eight for the 111 (C)OTU section being an exception) carefully rendered colour profile illustrations add an extra layer of historical interpretation to each of these unit histories. These are not of the &lsquocookie cutter&rsquo variety (i.e. rendering all subject aircraft as having the same detail features) that some publishers fall into the trap of using. Rather, each one is carefully crafted to represent the subject aircraft in detail, down to radar fit and the various external hints of other Airborne Radio Installations (A.R.I. in Ministry of Aircraft Production nomenclature). Finish and markings scheme particulars are also well covered. No gross overgeneralizations here, but rather all detail-minded modeler friendly stuff.

This user unit history section concludes on page 87, following which a more finely particulate history of No. 311 Squadron begins a new section of six chapters&hellip or maybe it is a chapter in six sections(?). Whatever the case, this reviewer is again left with a momentary sense of organizational confusion. However, once caught up in the content this is quickly forgotten. Once you see it, I&rsquom confident you&rsquoll agree that this 311 Squadron section / chapter / whatever could be a substantial book in its own right.

It begins with &ldquoLiberators allotted to No. 311 (Czechoslovak) Squadron&rdquo. Before diving into the service history of each individual aircraft, this section opens with a clear statistical summary of the inventory providing variant and serial number data as well as other useful information like which machines were equipped with rockets, which were used for combat, or practice and training duties etc.

Individual aircraft are then presented in detail, in chronological order of their original USAAF serials (these often remained inscribed on the airframe, a by-product of the Lend Lease programme). This section is a feast of textual and graphical material for anyone, regardless of squadron affiliations, with even a remote interest in the RAF&rsquos maritime war effort. Taking the first aircraft (B-24D-CO s/n 41-11610 as Liberator GR V FL961 / &ldquoO&rdquo and later / &ldquoS&rdquo) as an example, we see that the author first summaries the machine&rsquos pre-history &ndash its movements from production line to operational flight line &ndash with the incremental additions of technical attributes noted along the way. Continuing on, the narrative pace picks up with detailed accounts of significant actions and otherwise beyond-routine sorties flown. In the case of FL961, we learn that, after joining the squadron in March, it flew 22 combat sorties between 10 June 1944 and 14 February 1945, during which two attacks (in one sortie) were made. A later sortie, during which the crew decided to continue the mission even after incurring take-off damage, is also documented in similar detail. The aircraft&rsquos 311 Sqn story is served in five pages, nicely illustrated throughout with photos, one of those excellent profiles, and the pilot&rsquos sketches from the original UBAT (U-boat battle report).

I would only take the author to task on one minor detail in this account. In the caption on page 88, he writes that the referred-to photo was taken at &ldquo&hellip RAF Predannack, spring / summer 1944.&rdquo However, in the photo there is evidence of the squadron&rsquos &ldquonumber-on-airfield&rdquo code numeral (&ldquo3&rdquo in this case) having been painted out already. This reviewer&rsquos research indicates that this most probably occurred within the week following Operation Neptune, so &ldquospring&rdquo probably does not belong in the sentence. The profile is true to all visible details in its interpretation of the photos, down to the smallest of ARI aerials and nuances of finish including the over-painted code character. Stepping back and looking at the overall excellence of the work, such things as this captioning error are microscopic glitches taken against the greater whole.

Given the complexity of many aspects of this subject (i.e. RAF Liberators), and the difficulty it can present to researchers in both weeding informational wheat from chaff, and in integrating the results into a coherent volume such as this, I&rsquom constantly astounded with each page turn.

Each of the squadrons Liberators is given equal accord in this book. Whether it had a rich history or a drab one, all findings on each machine&rsquos career are documented here. Texts are as complete as the research allowed likewise the photo coverage. The latter varies from none (for a relative small number of individual machines) to numerous. All interesting, well captioned, and educational the scores of caption-enhanced photos are supported by some three dozen profiles.

The next 311-specific section deals with the interesting topic of &ldquoLiberators allotted to No. 311 Squadron (according to AM Form 78 and other documents) but never received by the unit&rdquo, listing eleven aircraft that were found to have been assigned to the squadron, but never actually taken on strength. What an interesting sidebar this makes, with one of the eleven shown in a half dozen photos. Taking up only three pages, it is followed by three very similar photographic sections: &ldquoLiberator G.R. Mk.V of No. 311 Squadron &ndash unclear identification&rdquo &ldquoLiberator G.R. Mk.VI of No. 311 Squadron &ndash unclear identification&rdquo and &ldquoLiberators of No. 311 Squadron - unclear identification.&rdquo These, together with the final section, &ldquoLiberators of No. 311 Squadron &ndash Stop Press&rdquo seem to me a justifiable excuse for the author to include orphaned photos that may not have had a comfortable home in other sections of the book. Kudos to the publisher for going along with it.

The primary content ends here, at page 280, after having served up the results of years of collection, study, and careful interpretation. The hundreds of photos (many published here for the first time), handful of maps and similar narrative-supporting graphics, plus nearly six dozen of those nicely rendered profiles make it a truly rare parcel of work. But wait, there is a little more&hellip

Four useful appendices follow:

Appendix 1 - RAF Coastal Command Liberator Standards

Appendix 2 - Liberators of No. 1 (Coastal) Operational Training Unit

Appendix 3 - Liberators of No. 111 (Coastal) Operational Training Unit

Appendix 4 - Liberators of No. 311 (Czechoslovak) Squadron

Within these, the operational, design, and equipment details tabulated will serve as valuable reference to anyone interested in drilling down on the subject. This is especially true when taken in concert with the rest of the book (I&rsquove already done lots of rewarding page flipping as a result) or any related parts (i.e. ASW Liberator) of other books on the shelf. Valuable stuff for the serious and casual alike.

In correspondence with co-author Pavel Türk, I was excited to learn that at least one more volume, more technical in nature, is in the works. I would venture a guess that its ultimate appearance on bookstore shelves depends on the success of this initial tome. No doubt my personal interest in all things Coastal Command &ndash piled on a similar fascination for the Liberator&rsquos wider RCAF and USAAF / USN use in the maritime war &ndash paints me biased but if you have even a general interest in this incredible aircraft&rsquos history, I believe you owe it to yourself to set some shekels aside for this handsome volume. Don&rsquot wait too long before committing to one though&hellip it is a JaPo book, so it may not be on the shelves for too long more. At least not at the original price.

Afsluiting

Academic and armchair historians alike should find value here**, as would model makers, restorers, artists and flight sim enthusiasts alike.

I would like to thank JaPo Publishing for the review copy of the book.

*It was Sixth in terms of actual number of aircraft completed. More than 36,000 Ilyushin Il-2 aircraft were produced in the Soviet Union, making it the largest number of individual aircraft, but like the other most-produced types, it was a single-engined aircraft.


No. 32 Squadron (RAF): Second World War - History

ORGANISASIE VAN DIE KONINKLIKE VLOT 1939-1945

Dit is moontlik 'n unieke en beslis waardevolle oorsig van die Royal Navy in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, toe dit soveel bereik het.

Dit is van groot hulp om al die ander materiaal uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op Naval-History.Net en die internet in die algemeen in 'n duideliker perspektief te plaas

Ek het besluit om as kopfoto's te kies: die twee First Sea Lord's wat gedurende die oorlog gedien het, Admiral Pound sterf in die pos in 1943. Vir my was hul verantwoordelikhede te verstane, en volgens my was dit slegs diegene wat soortgelyke rolle gehad het. en pligte kan kritiseer.

Gordon Smith,
Naval-History.Net.

Die Sea Lords
Die vlootpersoneel
Sommige administratiewe afsprake

Die vlootpersoneel
Administratiewe afdelings

Nore Command
Portsmouth Command
Plymouth Command

Rosyth Command
Orkneys & amp Shetlands Command

Gibraltar/Noord-Atlantiese kommando, 1939-1945

Leierskap, beheer en bestuur van die Royal Navy berus by die Board of Admiralty, wat verantwoordelik was vir die administrasie van die vlootdiens en vir die bevel van Britse vlootoperasies wêreldwyd. As sodanig het dit verskil van die oorlogskantoor en die lugministerie, waar die uitvoering van die operasies aan die toepaslike bevelvoerders in die veld oorgedra is.

Die hoogste liggaam in die Admiraliteit was die raad, saamgestel uit politici, vlagoffisiere en staatsamptenare wie se gesamentlike funksie was om belangrike besluite oor alle aspekte van die Royal Navy se krag te bespreek en goed te keur. Each member of the Board had a specific function in relation to the administration of the Royal Navy.

The chairman of the Board was the First Lord of the Admiralty. A politician and member of the Cabinet, his role was to represent the navy's views in government discussion on such matters as budgets, construction programmes, manpower needs, and general maritime policy. The First Lord was assisted by a junior flag officer titled the Naval Secretary who had specific responsibility for helping the First Lord in the appointment and promotion of officers. From May 1940 onwards the First Lord, Mr A V Alexander, largely confined himself to this role and did not interfere in operational matters. This was in contrast to his immediate predecessor. Between September 1939 and May 1940, Winston Churchill, as First Lord, did take a leading role in operational matters.

The First Lord was assisted two junior politicians, the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary, and the Civil Lord. The most senior civil servant was the Permanent Secretary. The only major addition to the civilian side of the Board was the appointment of Sir James Lithgow, a prominent shipbuilder, as Controller of Merchant Shipbuilding and Repairs.

Five of the six flag officers on the Board had a specific area of responsibility which was reflected in their titles

First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff
Second Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Personnel
Third Sea Lord and Controller
Fourth Sea Lord and Chief of Supplies and Transport
Fifth Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Air Services.

The other member was the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff

In September 1939, most of the members of the Board were relatively new in their posts.



RAF Burtonwood

RAF Burtonwood, near Warrington is now sadly completely demolished. Until fairly recently some of its huge hangars could be seen from the M62 motorway.

However, if you look carefully there are a few things still visible and there is an excellent museum that documents its history.

RAF Burtonwood was built specifically for the Second World War, opening in time for the Battle of Britain before being handed over to the United States when they entered the war. It was: "open the longest and was the last to close. It had the most US personnel, the highest production, the most aircraft, the longest runway and even the most marriages." (Lancashire Airfields in the Second World War by Aldon P.Ferguson).

During World War Two, thousands of aircraft were repaired or built at Burtonwood. Anything from an entire plane (11,575 built in just 32 months) to its engine to individual parts were stripped and re-built, completely overhauled, modified or built from scratch. It was the biggest airbase in Europe during WW2 and therefore played a crucial role in how the war progressed. Surprisingly, it largely escaped German bombing raids, despite nearby Liverpool and Manchester both being Blitzed.

So with the hangers gone, huge distribution centres being built, whole housing estates springing up and a major motorway over the main runway - what still exists?

So far we have found three remaining blast shelters, a very rare Pickett Hamilton Fort, a possible pillbox or bunker (no photos on this page yet), some lumps and bumps and a fantastic Museum.

List of site sources >>>


Kyk die video: RAF Jaguar - RAF Recruitment Video - 1970s (Januarie 2022).