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Waarom het die Jode Israel verlaat en versprei oor die hele wêreld?

Waarom het die Jode Israel verlaat en versprei oor die hele wêreld?

Wanneer en wat veroorsaak dat Jode Israel verlaat ná die Romeinse verowering en versprei oor die hele wêreld?


Eintlik het die Joodse diaspora (dit wil sê hul verspreiding buite Israel) lank tevore begin, met die Assiriese verowering van die Joodse Koninkryk en die deportasie van die Jode na ander gebiede, 'n algemene gebruik onder die Assiriërs en met die Babiloniese ballingskap. Later het die Perse Babilon verower en die Jode toegelaat om na Israel terug te keer, maar baie het dit net nie gedoen nie. Die Grieke en die Romeine sou later die oostelike Middellandse See verower.
In die algemeen was die Romeine aanvanklik min of meer toegeeflike oorwinnaars, wat die Jode toegelaat het om hul aanbidding voort te sit en hul eie heersers te hê, solank hulle die Romeinse heerskappy erken het. Na die Eerste Joods-Romeinse Oorlog en die opstande wat daarop gevolg het, is die Tempel van Jerusalem verwoes, die Joodse leierskap tereggestel en baie Jode is verban, en daarmee het die sentrum van politieke en godsdienstige mag van Jerusalem en die Tempel na die plaaslike Joodse gemeenskappe regdeur die Ryk.


Antisemitisme

Antisemitisme, wat soms geskiedenis se oudste haat genoem word, is vyandigheid of vooroordeel teenoor Joodse mense. Die Nazi-holocaust is die mees ekstreme voorbeeld van die geskiedenis van antisemitisme in die geskiedenis. Antisemitisme het nie by Adolf Hitler begin nie: Antisemitiese houdings dateer uit die antieke tyd. In 'n groot deel van Europa gedurende die Middeleeue is Joodse mense burgerskap geweier en gedwing om in ghetto's te woon. Anti-Joodse onluste genaamd pogroms het die Russiese Ryk gedurende die negentiende en vroeë twintigste eeu oorval, en antisemitiese voorvalle het die afgelope paar jaar toegeneem in dele van Europa, die Midde-Ooste en Noord-Amerika.

Die term antisemitisme is die eerste keer gewild gemaak deur die Duitse joernalis Wilhelm Marr in 1879 om haat of vyandigheid teenoor Jode te beskryf. Die geskiedenis van antisemitisme gaan egter baie verder terug.

Vyandigheid teenoor Jode kan tot by die Joodse geskiedenis strek. In die antieke ryke van Babilonië, Griekeland en Rome het Jode wat ontstaan ​​het in die antieke koninkryk van Judea, dikwels gekritiseer en vervolg vir hul pogings om 'n aparte kultuurgroep te bly eerder as om die godsdienstige en sosiale gebruike van hul oorwinnaars aan te neem.

Met die opkoms van die Christendom het antisemitisme in groot dele van Europa versprei. Vroeë Christene het Judaïsme verneder in 'n poging om meer bekeerlinge te verkry. Hulle het Jode beskuldig van buitensporige dade soos “lod laster ” — die ontvoering en moord op Christelike kinders om hul bloed te gebruik om Paasbrood te maak.

Hierdie godsdienstige houdings word weerspieël in anti-Joodse ekonomiese, sosiale en politieke beleid wat in die Europese Middeleeue deurdring het.


Waarom het soveel Jode Jesus verwerp ?

Ons leer waardevolle lesse vir die geloofslewe wanneer ons die gesindhede van die Joodse volk in die tyd van Jesus bestudeer en vra waarom so baie Hom verwerp het. Alhoewel dit die waarheid is dat die meerderheid Jode Jesus as hul Messias verwerp het, is dit belangrik om te erken dat die eerstes wat in Hom geglo het, 'n relatief klein groepie Jode was en in duisende uit al die miljoene Israel getel het.

Die uitdrukking “the Israel of God ” verwys na Joodse gelowiges in Jesus [ Galasiërs 6:16 ]. Dit is nie 'n uitbreiding van “Israel ”, om nie -Joodse gelowiges in te sluit, maar a beperking van Israel om die gelowige oorblyfsel onder die Joodse volk te identifiseer.

Galasiërs 6:16

Vrede en barmhartigheid vir almal wat hierdie reël volg, selfs vir die Israel van God.

Op dieselfde manier, toe Jesus na Nathanael verwys as 'n ware Israeliet ” [Johannes 1:47 ]Hy besef dat Natanael 'n Jood was wat werklik op God vertrou het.

Johannes 1:47

Toe Jesus Nathanael sien nader kom, het Hy van hom gesê: “ Hier is 'n ware Israeliet, in wie daar niks vals is nie. ”

Alhoewel Israel 'n Messias en Verlosser beloof is, en ons baie Skrifte kan sien (wat hulle ook gehad het) wat in Jesus Christus vervul is, het menigtes Jode Hom verwerp en selfs die vroeë Joodse kerk vervolg (Handelinge 7: 59-8: 1).

Handelinge 7: 59-8: 1

Terwyl hulle hom stenig, het Stephen gebid: 'Here Jesus, ontvang my gees. dit, hy het aan die slaap geraak.

En Saul was daar en het sy dood goedgekeur.

Op daardie dag het 'n groot vervolging teen die kerk in Jerusalem uitgebreek, en almal behalwe die apostels was verstrooi oor Judea en Samaria.

Alhoewel dit waar is dat God die verwerping van Jesus deur almal behalwe 'n oorblyfsel van Israel vooraf bepaal het, sodat die evangelie aan heidene kon uitgaan [Romeine 11: 2-5,25 ] – dit is ook waar dat individue nie van die verantwoordelikheid onthef word om die Waarheid te aanvaar nie [ Handelinge 7: 51 ].

Romeine 11: 2-5,25

God het nie Sy mense, wat Hy vooraf geken het, verwerp nie. Weet u nie wat die Skrif sê in die gedeelte oor Elia hoe hy 'n beroep op God gedoen het teen Israel nie: Here, hulle het u profete doodgemaak en u altare afgebreek; ek is die enigste een wat oor is, en hulle probeer om my dood te maak ” ? En wat was die antwoord van God op hom ? “ Ek het vir myself sewe duisend voorbehou wat nie die knie voor Baäl gebuig het nie. ” So ook is daar tans 'n oorblyfsel uit genade gekies.

Ek wil nie hê dat julle onbewus moet wees van hierdie raaisel nie, broers, sodat julle nie verwaand kan wees nie: Israel het gedeeltelik verharding beleef totdat die volle aantal heidene ingekom het.

Handelinge 7:51

“Julle stywe nekke, met onbesnede harte en ore ! Julle is net soos julle vaders: julle weerstaan ​​altyd die Heilige Gees ! ”

Waarom het soveel Jode Jesus verwerp ?

Die Ou -Testamentiese profete het die koms van 'n Messias voorspel. Daar was skrifte wat gepraat het van 'n lydende dienskneg en geskrifte wat gepraat het van 'n oorwinnende koning. Ons weet dat die verse wat praat van 'n Oorwinnende Koning na Jesus verwys met sy wederkoms. Ons kan egter miskien verstaan ​​dat dit sonder die openbaring van die Heilige Gees verwarrend was vir die Jode. (Selfs vandag glo baie rabbi's in twee afsonderlike messias.)

In die tyd van Jesus was die Jode onder die hakskeen van die Romeinse Ryk. Hulle volk was beset en hulle het gewag dat 'n leier sou opstaan ​​om hulle te red. Hulle was so gefokus op die hoop van 'n Verowerende Koning dat baie die profesieë van 'n Lydende Dienskneg misgekyk het.

Ons sê, “Geen kruis, geen kroon nie. Geen dorings, geen troon nie, maar baie in Israel kyk nie verder as hul begeerte vir onmiddellike oorwinning nie.

Ek moet myself afvra: Is dit anders as die toestande in 'n groot deel van die kerk vandag? Soveel Christene glo dat hulle, as kinders van die koning, geregtig is op voorspoed en sukses. As gevolg van die geskiedenis van Israel, is dit die moeite werd om versigtig te wees vir enigiets wat dui op Christelike triomfalisme.

In die tyd van Jesus het die meeste Israeliete hulle geregtigheid probeer vind in hul strewe om die Wet te gehoorsaam. Werke bevredig vir homself. Dit het hulle rede gegee om trots te wees op hul eie pogings. Aan die ander kant, diegene wat toegegee het dat hulle nie die maat bereik het nie en hulle op die genade van God gewerp het, was diegene wat beter in staat was om namens Jesus offerande te aanvaar [Romeine 9: 30-33 ].

Daar is altyd 'n gevaar in die kerklike lewe om te dryf na 'n plek waar ons ons sekuriteit in formalisme vind, eerder as deur geloof in Christus. Die Christelike lewe gaan nie oor reëls en rituele nie. Dit gaan oor die verhouding met Jesus. Ons moet tot Hom nader en erken wanneer ons trots begin raak op ons godsdienstige gebruike.

Romeine 9: 30-33

“Wat sal ons dan sê ? Dat die heidene, wat nie geregtigheid najaag nie, dit verkry het, 'n geregtigheid wat uit geloof is, maar Israel, wat 'n wet van geregtigheid nagestreef het, dit nie bereik het nie. Waarom nie ? Omdat hulle dit nie deur geloof nagestreef het nie, maar asof dit deur werke was. Hulle het gestruikel oor die ’struikelsteen. ’ Soos daar geskryf staan:
‘Kyk, ek lê in Sion 'n klip wat mense laat struikel en 'n rots wat hulle laat val, en die een wat op Hom vertrou, sal nooit beskaamd staan ​​nie. ”

Godsdienstige leiers in Israel in die tyd van Jesus het status en eiendom gehad wat hulle wou beskerm. Hulle was bekommerd dat die Romeine 'n verskoning sou vind om hulle godsdienstige lewe en tempel oor te neem [John 11: 47-53 ]. Hulle was bereid om Jesus op te offer eerder as om beheer te verloor.

Deur die Nuwe Testament te bestudeer, kan ek geen enkele voorbeeld vind van vroeë Christene wat kerklike eiendom verkry het of enige simbole van sukses nie. Die teenoorgestelde in werklikheid. Dit was asof hulle in 'n wedloop was om alles aan die armes weg te gee [ Handelinge 2: 42-45 ]. Ek sou dit nie as 'n rede gebruik om te sê dat kerke nie vergaderfasiliteite moet bou nie, maar ek wonder wanneer groot bedrae bestee word om hierdie geboue pronk te maak, en ek het opgemerk dat geskille in die kerklike lewe toeneem wanneer daar 'n stryd is. vir die beheer van eiendom. Dit lyk geestelik veiliger om sonder hierdie versoeking te lewe of om ten minste tot God te roep om hulp om dit nie ons oë van Jesus af te haal nie.

Johannes 11: 47-53

Toe roep die owerpriesters en die Fariseërs 'n vergadering van die Sanhedrin.

“Wat bereik ons ​​? ” het hulle gevra. Hier sien hierdie man baie wondertekens. As ons Hom so laat aangaan, sal almal in Hom glo, en dan sal die Romeine ons plek en ons nasie kom wegneem.”

Toe het een van hulle, genaamd Kajafas, wat daardie jaar hoëpriester was, gepraat, “Jy weet glad niks ! Jy besef nie dat dit vir jou beter is dat een man vir die mense sterf as dat die hele volk omkom nie . ”

Hy het dit nie uit sy eie gesê nie, maar as hoëpriester in daardie jaar het hy geprofeteer dat Jesus vir die Joodse nasie sou sterf, en nie net vir die volk nie, maar ook vir die verstrooide kinders van God, om hulle bymekaar te bring en een te maak. Daarom het hulle van daardie dag af besluit om sy lewe te neem.

Handelinge 2: 42-45

Hulle het hulle toegewy aan die onderrig van die apostels en aan die gemeenskap, aan die breek van brood en aan gebed. Almal was met ontsag vervul, en baie wonders en wonderbaarlike tekens is deur die apostels gedoen. Al die gelowiges was saam en het alles gemeen. Hulle het hul besittings en goedere verkoop en aan almal gegee soos hy nodig gehad het.

Jesus het gesê dat aan die einde van die tyd die liefde van die meeste koud sal word [Matteus 24: 12-13 ]. Die Bybel sê ook dat die einde eers sal kom tot die afvalligheid, of as dit groot wegval ΐ Tessalonisense 2: 3 ].

God was streng teenoor Israel, alhoewel Hy sê dat Hy nooit opgehou het om hulle lief te hê nie [ Jeremia 31: 3 ]. Ek moet wonder: lê die kerk 'n soortgelyke toets voor? [Romeine 11: 13-24 ].

Matteus 24: 12-13

As gevolg van die toename van goddeloosheid, die liefde van die meeste sal koud word, maar hy wat tot die einde toe vasstaan, sal gered word.

2 Tessalonisense 2: 3

Moenie toelaat dat iemand u op enige manier mislei nie, want daardie dag sal eers kom totdat die afvalligheid plaasvind en die man van wetteloosheid word geopenbaar ….

Jeremia 31: 3

Die HERE het in die verlede aan ons verskyn en gesê:
Ek het jou liefgehad met 'n ewige liefde
Ek het jou met liefdevolle goedhartigheid getrek. ”

Romeine 11: 13-24

Ek praat met julle heidene. Aangesien ek die apostel vir die heidene is, maak ek baie van my bediening in die hoop dat ek my eie mense op een of ander manier kan opwek tot afguns en sommige daarvan red. Want as hulle verwerping die versoening van die wêreld is, wat sal die aanvaarding daarvan wees, behalwe die lewe uit die dood? takke.

As sommige van die takke afgebreek is, en u, alhoewel 'n wilde olyfboom, tussen die ander ingeënt is en nou deel in die voedsame sap uit die olyfwortel, moenie oor die takke roem nie. Oorweeg dit as volg: U ondersteun nie die wortel nie, maar die wortel ondersteun u. U sal dan sê, ‘Takke is afgebreek sodat ek ingeënt kon word. ’ Toegegee. Maar hulle is afgebreek as gevolg van ongeloof, en u staan ​​in die geloof. Moenie arrogant wees nie, maar wees bang. Want as God nie die natuurlike takke gespaar het nie, sal hy julle ook nie spaar nie.

Beskou dus die vriendelikheid en strengheid van God: strengheid vir die wat geval het, maar vriendelikheid teenoor julle, op voorwaarde dat julle in sy goedhartigheid bly. Andersins word u ook afgesny. En as hulle nie in ongeloof volhard nie, sal hulle ingeënt word, want God is in staat om hulle weer in te ent. As u tog uit 'n olyfboom gekap is wat van nature wild is, en in teenstelling met die natuur in 'n gekweekte olyfboom ingeënt is, hoeveel te makliker sal hierdie, die natuurlike takke, in hul eie olyfboom ingeënt word ! & #8221


Israel Wetenskap en Tegnologie Gids

Geskryf deur: Israel Hanukoglu, Ph.D.

  • Nota: 'n Vorige weergawe van hierdie artikel is in PDF -formaat beskikbaar:
    '' N Kort geskiedenis van Israel en die Joodse volk 'gepubliseer in die tydskrif Knowledge Quest.

Aanhaling van Charles Krauthammer - The Weekly Standard, 11 Mei 1998

"Israel is die verpersoonliking van die Joodse kontinuïteit: dit is die enigste nasie op aarde wat dieselfde land bewoon, dieselfde naam dra, dieselfde taal praat en dieselfde God aanbid as 3000 jaar gelede. Jy grawe die grond en vind u aardewerk uit die Dawidiese tyd, muntstukke uit Bar Kokhba en 2 000 jaar oue boekrolle wat in 'n draaiboek opgeskryf is, merkwaardig soos die een wat vandag roomys in die hoekwinkel verkoop. "

Die volk Israel (ook die 'Joodse volk' genoem) spoor hul oorsprong aan Abraham, wat die oortuiging vasgestel het dat daar net een God is, die skepper van die heelal (sien Torah). Daar word na Abraham, sy seun Yitshak (Isaac) en kleinseun Jacob (Israel) verwys as die aartsvaders van die Israeliete. Al drie aartsvaders het in die land Kanaän gewoon, wat later as die land Israel bekend geword het. Hulle en hul vroue word begrawe in die Ma'arat HaMachpela, die Graf van die Aartsvaders, in Hebron (Genesis Hoofstuk 23).

Die naam Israel is afgelei van die naam wat aan Jakob gegee is (Genesis 32:29). Sy 12 seuns was die pitte van 12 stamme wat later tot die Joodse nasie ontwikkel het. Die naam Jood kom van Yehuda (Juda), een van die twaalf seuns van Jakob (Ruben, Shimon, Levi, Yehuda, Dan, Naftali, Gad, Asher, Yisachar, Zevulun, Yosef, Binyamin) (Exodus 1: 1). Die name Israel, Israelies of Joods verwys dus na mense van dieselfde oorsprong.

Die afstammelinge van Abraham het omstreeks 1300 v.C. na 'n uittog uit Egipte onder leiding van Moses ('n Moshe in Hebreeus) 'n volk geword. Kort na die uittog het Moses die Torah en die tien gebooie aan die mense van hierdie nuut ontluikende nasie oorgedra (Eksodus hoofstuk 20). Na 40 jaar in die Sinai-woestyn het Moses hulle na die land Israel gelei, wat in die Bybel aangehaal word as die land wat God aan die nageslag van die aartsvaders, Abraham, Isak en Jakob belowe het (Genesis 17: 8).

Die mense van die hedendaagse Israel deel dieselfde taal en kultuur wat gevorm word deur die Joodse erfenis en godsdiens wat deur geslagte heen gegaan het, begin met die stigter vader Abraham (ongeveer 1800 vC). So het Jode die afgelope 3300 jaar 'n deurlopende teenwoordigheid in die land Israel gehad.

Voor sy dood het Moses Josua aangestel as sy opvolger om die 12 stamme van Israel te lei. Die bewind van Israeliete in die land Israel het begin met die verowerings en die vestiging van 12 stamme onder leiding van Josua (ongeveer 1250 vC). Die tydperk tussen 1000-587 vC staan ​​bekend as die "periode van die konings". Die mees noemenswaardige konings was koning Dawid (1010-970 vC), wat Jerusalem die hoofstad van Israel gemaak het, en sy seun Salomo (Shlomo, 970-931 vC), wat die eerste tempel in Jerusalem gebou het soos voorgeskryf in die Tanach (Ou Testament) ).

In 587 vC het die leër van die Babiloniese Nebukadnesar Jerusalem ingeneem, die tempel vernietig en die Jode na Babilon (hedendaagse Irak) verban.

Die jaar 587 vC is 'n keerpunt in die geskiedenis van die Midde -Ooste. Van hierdie jaar af word die streek beheer of beheer deur 'n opeenvolging van destydse supermoondhede in die volgende volgorde: Babiloniese, Persiese, Griekse Hellenistiese, Romeinse en Bisantynse Ryk, Islamitiese en Christelike kruisvaarders, Ottomaanse Ryk en die Britse Ryk.

Na die ballingskap deur die Romeine in 70 nC, migreer die Joodse volk na Europa en Noord -Afrika. In die Diaspora (verstrooi buite die land Israel) het hulle 'n ryk kulturele en ekonomiese lewe gevestig en 'n belangrike bydrae gelewer tot die samelewings waar hulle gewoon het. Tog het hulle hul nasionale kultuur voortgesit en gebid om deur die eeue na Israel terug te keer. In die eerste helfte van die 20ste eeu was daar groot golwe van immigrasie van Jode terug na Israel uit Arabiese lande en Europa. Ondanks die Balfour -verklaring het die Britte die toetrede van Jode tot Palestina ernstig beperk, en diegene wat in Palestina woon, is onderworpe aan geweld en slagtings deur die skare van die Arabiere. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Nazi -regime in Duitsland ongeveer 6 miljoen Jode tot niet gemaak, wat die groot tragedie van die Holocaust veroorsaak het.

Ondanks al die ontberings, het die Joodse gemeenskap hom openlik en in geheimhouding voorberei op onafhanklikheid. Op 14 Mei 1948, die dag toe die laaste Britse magte Israel verlaat het, verklaar die Joodse gemeenskapsleier, David Ben-Gurion, onafhanklikheid en vestig die moderne staat Israel (sien die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring).

Arabies-Israeliese oorloë

'N Dag na die onafhanklikheidsverklaring van die staat Israel, het leërs van vyf Arabiese lande, Egipte, Sirië, Transjordanië, Libanon en Irak, Israel binnegeval. Hierdie inval was die begin van die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog van Israel (מלחמת העצמאות). Arabiese state het gesamentlik vier volskaalse oorloë teen Israel gevoer:

  • 1948 Onafhanklikheidsoorlog
  • 1956 Sinai -oorlog
  • 1967 Sesdaagse Oorlog
  • 1973 Yom Kippur Oorlog

Ondanks die numeriese meerderwaardigheid van die Arabiese leërs, het Israel hulself elke keer verdedig en gewen. Na elke oorlog het die Israeliese weermag onttrek uit die meeste gebiede wat dit verower het (sien kaarte). Dit is ongekend in die wêreldgeskiedenis en toon aan dat Israel bereid is om vrede te bereik, selfs met die gevaar om elke keer weer vir sy bestaan ​​te veg.

Israel, insluitend Judea en Samaria, is slegs 40 kilometer breed. Israel kan dus binne twee uur na die oorkruis van die Middellandse See -kus na die oostelike grens by die Jordaanrivier oorgesteek word.

Verwysings en hulpbronne vir verdere inligting

    -'n Uitstekende boek van hoë gehalte, insluitend 'n chronologie van die geskiedenis van Israel deur Francisco Gil-White. Dit is die beste revolusionêre uiteensetting van die invloed van Judaïsme op die wêreldkultuur in 'n historiese perspektief.

Versameling van die Israeliete

Hierdie tekening deur dr. Semion Natliashvili beeld die moderne byeenkoms van die Joodse volk na 2000 jaar Diaspora uit.

Die middelste beeld van die prentjie toon 'n jong en ou man in 'n gebedsdoek en lees uit 'n Torah -boek wat die Joodse volk verenig het. Die geskrewe gedeelte toon Shema Yisrael Adonay Eloheynu Adonay Echad (Hoor, Israel, die Here is ons God, die Here is een).

Die Dawidster simboliseer die byeenkoms van die Joodse volk uit alle uithoeke van die wêreld, insluitend Georgië (geboorteland van die kunstenaar), Marokko, Rusland, Amerika, China, Ethiopië, Europa en ander lande wat saamgevoeg en gedans het. Ander beelde in die ster simboliseer die moderne Israeliese nywerheid, landbou en weermag. Die beelde op die rand van die prentjie simboliseer die groot bedreigings waarmee die Joodse volk in ballingskap te staan ​​gekom het vanaf die uittog uit Egipte, gevolg deur Romeine, Arabiere en wat uitloop op die gaskamers van die Holocaust in Europa.


Diaspora van die Jode

Nadat die derde Joodse opstand in 135 nC plaasgevind het, is die Joodse volk deur keiser Hadrianus oor die hele wêreld versprei. Sedert die tyd dat Rome Judea beheer het vanaf 40 v.C., het die Jode in opstand gekom en probeer om hulle vryheid te verkry. Rome moes byna 150 jaar lank ly en die Jode verdra voordat hulle uiteindelik besluit het om hulle uit te wis en hul vaderland van hulle af te neem. Dit staan ​​bekend as die Diaspora van die Jode en verskyn op die Bybelse tydlynplakkaat in 135 nC.

Hierdie artikels word geskryf deur die uitgewers van Die ongelooflike Bybeltydlyn
Sien vinnig 6000 jaar Bybel- en wêreldgeskiedenis saam

Unieke sirkelvorm - sien meer in minder ruimte.
Leer feite wat u nie kan leer net deur die Bybel te lees nie
Aantreklike ontwerp ideaal vir u huis, kantoor, kerk en#8230

'N Geskiedenis van die Joodse ballingskap

Joodse mense is voortdurend uit hul vaderland gedeporteer, eers met die Babiloniërs, daarna die Perse, die Grieke en uiteindelik die Romeine. Hulle het 'n kort tydperk van outonome heerskappy geniet wat gedurende die Hasmonean -dinastie geduur het. Dit eindig in 40 v.C. toe koning Herodes die Romeinse Ryk gebruik het om beheer oor Judea te verkry. Sedertdien het die Jode hard geveg teen die Romeinse oorheersing.

Opstand en opstand

Die volgende 150 jaar van die Joodse geskiedenis is gekenmerk deur opstand en opstand teen Rome. Die Jode was moeg vir die Romeine en hul gebrek aan respek vir die Joodse lewe. Hulle het militante versetgroepe gevorm wat oor die jare gekom en gegaan het. Die Selote was waarskynlik die bekendste versetgroep gedurende hierdie era. Baie van die mense sou dalk nie van die dinge gehou het wat die Yweraars gedoen het nie, maar die meeste van hulle was verbonde aan hul saak. Uiteindelik het die Zealots-opstand uitgeloop op die eerste Joods-Romeinse oorlog waar Jerusalem ingeneem is en die Tempel van Salomo eens en vir altyd deur die Romeine vernietig is. Baie Jode is as slawerny verkoop of in ander stede hervestig. Hierdie gebeure het plaasgevind in 70 nC Ongeveer 45 jaar later in 115 nC het 'n tweede Joodse opstand gebeur en kort na hierdie gebeurtenis (in 132 nC) het die Jode 'n derde keer in opstand gekom onder die bewind van Hadrianus. Dit was die laaste strooi en nadat hulle verslaan is, het Hadrianus die Jode gedeporteer, hulle in slawerny verkoop en Jerusalem hernoem na Aelia Capitolina en die koninkryk van Judea word nou Palestina, Sirië genoem. Hierdie gebeurtenis sou 'n beduidende veranderingspunt in die geskiedenis van die Joodse volk wees.

Die Jode in ander gebiede

Baie van die Jode was versprei oor die ryk en kon nooit hul vaderland herwin nie. So het hulle hul eie gemeenskappe ontwikkel in die kulture waar hulle gewoon het. Jode het nou in verskillende dele van Afrika, Rome, Griekeland, Klein -Asië, Sirië, Egipte gewoon, en sommige het na Indië en selfs tot in China gegaan. Mettertyd migreer Jode na Rusland, Duitsland, Kanada, Mexiko, Brasilië en die Verenigde State.

Hulle het hulle daarop toegespits om hul lewenswyse te behou en het nie opgeneem in die dominante kulture wat hulle omring het nie. Hulle het kragtige lede van hul samelewing geword en baie Jode was betrokke by bankwese en handel. Die Jode het geleer hoe om leiersposisies te verkry, en hulle het byna by hulself gehou om soveel konflik as moontlik te vermy. Hulle was harde werkers en 'n gerespekteerde volk wat hul bes gedoen het om nie 'n las op die samelewings waar hulle woon te wees nie.

Die gebeure van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Jode gedwing om weer na hul vaderland terug te keer. In 1949 neem die Britte Palestina en gee dit terug aan die Joodse volk en al die Jode in die wêreld het nou weer 'n plek om huis toe te roep.


Is Israel geskep weens die Holocaust?

Die Demokratiese verteenwoordiger van Michigan, Rashida Tlaib (die eerste Palestina-Amerikaanse vrou wat tot die kongres verkies is) het onlangs weer 'n partydige polemiek oor Israel veroorsaak met haar kommentaar oor die rol van die Palestyne in die skepping van Israel in die nasleep van die Holocaust van die Europese Jood. Republikeine het haar van antisemitisme beskuldig, terwyl haar mede -demokrate tot haar verdediging gejaag het, maar wat te midde van die partydige wrok grootliks onbetwisbaar was, was haar insinuasie dat Israel weens die Holocaust geskep is. In my nuwe boek, Die Israelies-Palestynse konflik: wat almal moet weet, Ek ontken hierdie algemene aanname.

Die chronologiese nabyheid van die Holocaust en die vestiging van Israel het daartoe gelei dat baie mense aangeneem het dat die twee gebeurtenisse oorsaaklik met mekaar verband hou en dat Israel weens die Holocaust geskep is. In teenstelling met hierdie algemene opvatting sou 'n Joodse staat egter waarskynlik vroeër of later in Palestina ontstaan ​​het, met of sonder die Holocaust.

Politieke Sioniste soos Theodore Herzl het dekades voor die massamoord op Europese Joodskap die saak aangevoer vir Joodse staatskaping, en die Sionistiese beweging het jare lank aktief in Palestina die politieke en ekonomiese infrastruktuur vir 'n uiteindelike Joodse staat opgebou. Sioniste, in Palestina en elders, het nie die Holocaust nodig gehad om hulle te oortuig van die Jode se eksistensiële behoefte aan staatskaping nie, alhoewel dit hulle nog meer vasberade en minder geduldig gemaak het om hierdie langdurige doel te bereik.

Die meeste Jode in die diaspora, wat voorheen teen die sionisme gekant was of grotendeels onverskillig daarteen was, was oortuig van die noodsaaklikheid van Joodse staatskaping nadat hulle geleer het oor die byna uitwissing van die Europese Jood en die wanhopige lot van diegene wat daarin kon slaag om te oorleef. In die nasleep van die Holocaust het sionisme die dominante ideologie in die hele Joodse wêreld geword. Dit lyk asof die Holocaust die Sionistiese argument bevestig dat Jode 'n eie staat nodig het om hulle te beskerm, te red en te beskerm teen hul vyande. Dit het daartoe gelei dat baie diaspora -Jode, veral dié in die Verenigde State, sterk en energieke advokate geword het vir die skepping van 'n Joodse staat in Palestina. Amerikaanse Jode het ook Jode in Palestina broodnodige geld en wapens voorsien om hulle te help om so 'n staat te ontwikkel en te verdedig.

Die massamobilisasie van die Amerikaanse Jood ter ondersteuning van die Joodse staatskaping na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het ongetwyfeld 'n rol gespeel om die Amerikaanse regering te oorreed om die verdeling van Palestina te ondersteun in die sentrale VN -stemming in November 1947, en dan onmiddellik die staat Israel daarna te erken verklaar is. Geskiedkundiges debatteer steeds oor hoeveel hierdie steun destyds 'n faktor was in die besluitneming van die Truman-administrasie. President Harry Truman was bekommerd oor die wen van die invloedryke Joodse stemming tydens die presidentsverkiesing van November 1948, en hy is onderhewig aan intense lobby deur Amerikaanse Joodse Sioniste. Maar dit is geensins duidelik dat dit die belangrikste redes was waarom Truman die verdeling van Palestina ondersteun en die staat Israel erken het, in stryd met die advies van sy eie staatsdepartement.

Die Amerikaanse publieke opinie is diep geraak deur die Holocaust, en gevolglik het die Verenigde State in die nadraai meer steun gegee aan die Joodse staatskaping. Dit het beslis die Amerikaanse buitelandse beleid beïnvloed, net soos president Truman se ware simpatie met Joodse lyding in die Holocaust en die lot van Joodse Holocaust -oorlewendes (kort nadat hy president geword het aan die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, byvoorbeeld, vra Truman die Britse regering, tevergeefs om 100 000 oorlewendes van die Holocaust in Palestina toe te laat).

Nie een van hierdie faktore weeg egter die invloed van pragmatiese oorwegings op by die bepaling van die Amerikaanse buitelandse beleid rakende die toekoms van Palestina. Dit is veral gedryf deur die dringende behoefte om tot 250 000 Joodse vlugtelinge en ontheemdes in Europa te hervestig (waarvan baie nie bereid was om terug te keer na hul lande van herkoms nie), en deur 'n ewe belangrike begeerte om 'n oorlog in Palestina te vermy wat kan die Midde -Ooste destabiliseer en deur die Sowjetunie uitgebuit word.

Sommige Amerikaanse beleidmakers, waaronder Truman self, het ook verwag dat 'n Joodse staat demokraties en pro-Westers sou wees en sodoende die verspreiding van Sowjet-invloed in die streek kon bekamp. In die konteks van die opkomende Koue Oorlog met die Sowjets, het Amerikaanse strategiese belange die Amerikaanse buitelandse beleid meer gevorm as humanitêre kommer vir Joodse oorlewendes van die Holocaust. Die oortuiging dat Jode vergoed moes word vir hul lyding tydens die Holocaust en moreel verdien het om 'n eie staat te hê, was hoogstens 'n sekondêre faktor.

Ander state, veral Groot -Brittanje en die Sowjetunie, was selfs meer gemotiveerd deur realpolitik as deur simpatie vir die Holocaust in hul standpunte ten opsigte van die skepping van 'n Joodse staat in Palestina. Die Britte het die Joodse staatskap grootliks gekant uit 'n begeerte om goeie betrekkinge met Arabiese state te handhaaf (wie se oorvloed olievoorrade hulle benodig). Die Sowjette, aan die ander kant, ondersteun die Joodse staatskaping omdat hulle die Britte uit Palestina wou kry en hoop dat 'n Joodse staat, onder leiding van die sosialisties-georiënteerde Mapai Party, goeie betrekkinge met die USSR sou hê.

Alhoewel daar beslis wydverspreide internasionale simpatie was vir die slagoffers en oorlewendes van die Holocaust, was hierdie simpatie van verbygaande aard, en dit het nie outomaties gelei tot volksondersteuning vir die skepping van 'n Joodse staat nie. Die openbare steun wat wel bestaan ​​het, was ook nie die belangrikste rede waarom die Algemene Vergadering van die VN besluit het om Palestina in 'n Joodse staat en 'n Arabiese staat te verdeel nie. Die stemming weerspieël hoofsaaklik die wense van Washington en Moskou - wat toevallig in ooreenstemming was - en die vermeende nasionale belange van die VN -lidlande (sommige is sterk onder druk geplaas om vir partisie te stem).

Die Holocaust was dus nie naastenby 'n belangrike faktor in die skepping van Israel nie, soos wat baie mense, insluitend die heer Tlaib, dink. Alhoewel dit algemene steun vir Israel se bestaan ​​gegenereer het, veral in sommige Westerse lande, was dit nie die oorsaak van Israel se vestiging nie.


Waarom waai palmblare?

Vraag gestuur deur Janie. Palmsondag groet die mense Jesus terug uit die woestyn en waai palmblare. HOEKOM?

Waarom waai palmblare Daar is 'n paar verduidelikings. Een daarvan is dat dit in die antieke wêreld algemeen was om 'n koning of oorlogsheld tuis te verwelkom deur 'n pad met takke vir hom op te lê/te loop - soortgelyk aan die rol van die rooi tapyt vandag in Engelssprekende lande. Ander stel voor dat die Romeine kampioene van die spele en die weermag met palmtakke vereer het. 'N Ander verduideliking is dat dit 'n herinnering is aan die fees van die hutte wat in Levitikus en Deuteronomium beveel is.

Vir hierdie fees is die Israeliete beveel: “En julle moet op die eerste dag vir julle die vrugte van pragtige bome, die palmblare en die takke van takke en populiere van die spruitvallei neem; en julle moet jubel voor Jehovah julle God sewe dae. ” Die palmtakke is gebruik as 'n teken van blydskap. Die tydelike hutte was 'n herinnering daaraan dat Jehovah sy volk uit Egipte gered het om in tente in die wildernis te woon. “Die vreemdeling en die vaderlose seun en die weduwee” het aan hierdie fees deelgeneem. All Israel was to “become nothing but joyful.”­Leviticus 23:40 Deuteronomy 16:13-15 However others believe there is no connection between this festival that occurred months after Passover and the triumphal entry into Jerusalem by Christ just before his death and resurrection. Another interesting fact: Why did Christ ride in on a donkey or ass?


Exodus: Why Europe's Jews Are Fleeing Once Again

The mob howled for vengeance, the missiles raining down on the synagogue walls as the worshippers huddled inside. It was a scene from Europe in the 1930s &ndash except this was eastern Paris on the evening of July 13th, 2014.

Thousands had gathered to demonstrate against the Israeli bombardment of Gaza. But the protest soon turned violent &ndash and against Jews in general. One of those trapped told Israeli television that the streets outside were "like an intifada", the Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation.

Some of the trapped Jews fought their way out as the riot police dispersed the crowd. Manuel Valls, the French Prime Minister, condemned the attack in "the strongest possible terms", while Joel Mergei, a community leader, said he was "profoundly shocked and revolted". The words had no effect. Two weeks later, 400 protesters attacked a synagogue and Jewish-owned businesses in Sarcelles, in the north of Paris, shouting "Death to the Jews". Posters had even advertised the raid in advance, like the pogroms of Tsarist Russia.

France has suffered the worst violence, but anti-Semitism is spiking across Europe, fuelled by the war in Gaza. In Britain, the Community Security Trust (CST) says there were around 100 anti-Semitic incidents in July, double the usual number. The CST has issued a security alert for Jewish institutions. In Berlin a crowd of anti-Israel protesters had to be prevented from attacking a synagogue. In Liege, Belgium, a café owner put up a sign saying dogs were welcome, but Jews were not allowed.

Yet for many French and European Jews, the violence comes as no surprise. Seventy years after the Holocaust, from Amiens to Athens, the world's oldest hatred flourishes anew. For some, opposition to Israeli policies is now a justification for open hatred of Jews &ndash even though many Jews are strongly opposed to Israel's rightward lurch, and support the establishment of a Palestinian state.

As Stephen Pollard, the editor of the Jewish Chronicle, argues: "These people were not attacked because they were showing their support for the Israeli government. They were attacked because they were Jews, going about their daily business."

One weekend in May seemed to epitomise the darkness. On May 24th a gunman pulled out a Kalashnikov assault rifle at the Jewish Museum in Brussels and opened fire, killing four people. The next day the results of the elections to the European parliament showed a surge in support for extreme-right ­parties in France, Greece, Hungary and Germany. The National Front in France won the election, which many fear could be a precursor to eventually taking power in a national election.

Perhaps the most shocking result was the surge in support for Golden Dawn in Greece. The party, which has been described as openly neo-Nazi, won almost 10% of the vote, bringing it three members of the European parliament.

In parts of Hungary, especially the impoverished north and east, Jobbik is the main opposition to the governing right-wing Fidesz. Jobbik won 14.7% of votes at the European elections. The party denies being antisemitic but even Marine Le Pen, leader of the French National Front, ruled out cooperating with them in the European parliament.

In November 2012, Marton Gyöngyösi, a senior Jobbik MP, called for a list to be made of Hungarian Jews, especially those working in Parliament or for the government, as they posed a "national security risk". (Gyöngyösi later apologised and said he was referring only to Jews with dual Israeli-­Hungarian citizenship.)

Some saw the Brussels attack and the election results as dark portents. "At what point," asked Jeffrey Goldberg, a prominent American Jewish journalist, "do the Jews of America and the Jews of Israel tell the Jews of Europe that it might be time to get out?" Around now, it seems.

A survey published in November 2013 by the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union found that 29% had considered emigrating as they did not feel safe. Jews across Europe, the survey noted, "face insults, discrimination and physical violence, which despite concerted efforts by both the EU and its member states, shows no signs of fading into the past".

Two-thirds considered anti-Semitism to be a problem across the countries surveyed. Overall, 76% said that anti-Semitism had worsened over the past five years in their home countries, with the most marked deteriorations in France, Hungary and Belgium. The European Jewish Congress has now set up a website, sacc.eu, to give advice and contacts in the events of an attack.

"The tendency is very alarming," says Natan Sharansky, chairman of the Jewish Agency, which links Israel with diaspora communities and organises immigration. "The level of concern about security in Europe is higher than in Asia or Latin America. This feeling of insecurity is growing. It's difficult to imagine that in France, Belgium and many other countries Jewish people are told not to go out on the streets wearing a kippah."

A survey by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) in New York found similar results. The ADL Global 100 surveyed 53,000 adults in 102 countries. It found that 26% held deeply anti-Semitic attitudes, answering "probably true" to six or more of 11 negative stereotypes of Jews.

The highest levels of prejudice were found in the Arab world, with the Palestinian Territories topping the list at 93%, followed by Iraq at 92%. In Europe Greece topped the list at 69%, while France scored 37% and Belgium 27%. Britain had 8%, the Netherlands 5% and Sweden was the lowest at 4%. In Eastern Europe Poland had 45% and Hungary 41%. The Czech Republic was lowest at 13%.

But the picture is more complex than the survey suggests. Malmo, Sweden's third-largest city, is one of the most unsettling places in Europe for Jews. Anti-Semitic attacks tripled between 2010 and 2012, when the community, around 700-strong, recorded 60 incidents. In October 2012 a bomb exploded at the Jewish community centre.

Jewish leaders accused Ilmar Reepalu, who served as mayor between 1994 and 2013, of inflammatory comments. Reepalu called for Jews to distance themselves from Zionism, and claimed that the Jewish community had been "infiltrated" by the Sweden Democrats party, which has its roots in the far-right. Reepalu has denied being anti-Semitic. But his remarks provoked a storm of protest and he was forced to retract them. Hannah Rosenthal, the former US Special Envoy for combating anti-Semitism, said Malmo was a prime example of the "new anti-Semitism" where hatred of Israel is used to disguise hatred of Jews.

It is not anti-Semitic to criticise the Israeli government or its policies towards the Palestinians, say Jewish leaders. A reasoned, open debate on the conflict is always welcome &ndash especially now, when passions are running so high over Gaza. But the morbid obsession with the only democracy in the Middle East, they say, its relentless demonisation and the calls for its destruction are indicative of anti-Semitism.

Social media provides an easy platform for the spread of hate, which has been given impetus by the alliance between Islamists and the left, says Ben Cohen, author of Some of My Best Friends: A Journey Through Twenty-First Century Anti-Semitism. "Saying that Jews are the only nation who don't have the right to self-determination, smearing Israel as a modern incarnation of Nazi Germany or apartheid South Africa, asserting that the 'Israel Lobby' manipulates American foreign policy from the shadows is unmistakably anti-Semitism."

In 1997 I wrote a book about Muslim minorities in Europe, called A Heart Turned East. It was optimistic, and, with hindsight, naïve of me. I travelled across France, Germany, Britain, Turkey and Bosnia. I hoped then that a tolerant, modern Islam could emerge in Europe, in the Ottoman tradition. The Ottomans had not been perfect, but they had been comparably tolerant &ndash especially in comparison to the Catholic church. In France I met Muslim intellectuals, exiles and artists. They were resentful of their second class status, and had been scarred by racism and discrimination. But their anger was directed at the French authorities and they were keen to co-exist with their Jewish compatriots.

So what went wrong? The undercurrents had long been swirling, but had been little noticed. They date back to the Islamic revolution in Iran, the siege of Mecca and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, says Ghaffar Hussain, of the Quilliam Foundation, a counter-extremism think-tank in London. "Islamist extremism experienced a global upsurge post 1979. These events played into the hands of Islamists." That anger was further fuelled by the Bosnian war, which helped nurture a global Muslim consciousness.

Many western Muslim communities are suffering an identity crisis, says Hussain. The politics of hate offers an easy escape and a means of blaming personal feelings on others. "In many cases it resonates with the life experiences of young Muslims. They feel alienated and disenfranchised, due to negative experiences, personal inadequacies or even cultural differences."

Jews, Muslims, African and other immigrants once lived in reasonable harmony in the banlieues, sharing hard time. La Haine (Hate), a hugely successful thriller directed by Mathieu Kassovitz, released in 1995, starred three protagonists: one Jewish, one Afro-French and a third from a North African family. The violence and brutality are experienced by all three friends.

Such a film is nearly unimaginable nowadays. The turning point came in January 2006 with the kidnapping and murder of Ilan Halimi. A 23-year-old mobile telephone salesman, Halimi was lured into a honey-trap, abducted and held for three weeks in Bagneux, outside Paris. There he was tortured while his abductors telephoned his family, so they could hear his screams. Youssouf Fofana, the leader of the gang, was later sentenced to life imprisonment.

One of the most disturbing aspects of the case was that 28 people were involved in the kidnapping and many more living on the housing estate knew about it. "The murder of Ilan Halimi was the first murder of a Jew because he was a Jew," says Roger Cukierman, president of the Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions (CRIF). "The prejudice and lack of humanity were impressive. It is unbelievable that in the 24 days he was held and tortured not one of the people involved even considered making an anonymous call to the police."

Many blame the controversial comedian Dieudonne and his "quenelle", supposedly a modified version of the Nazi salute, for fuelling hatred. Social media are awash with his followers, performing the quenelle in front of synagogues, Holocaust memorials, the school in Toulouse where three Jewish children and a teacher were murdered and even at the gates of Auschwitz.

Dieudonne denies that the gesture is anti-Semitic. The quenelle, he says, is a "gesture of liberation" from slavery. Dieudonne is also the creator of the "ShoahNanas" (Holocaust Pineapples) song, which he sings, accompanied by a young man wearing a large yellow star over a pair of pyjamas.

Now a new ingredient has been tossed into the cauldron: the wars in Syria and Iraq. The French government estimates that 800 jihadists are fighting in Syria, accompanied by several hundred from Britain. Among their number was Mehdi Nemmouche, who is accused of the attack on the Brussels Jewish museum. French police found he had in his possession a Kalashnikov assault rifle and a pistol, which they believed were used in the attack.

Together with the weapons, police found a white sheet emblazoned with the name of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis), the militia judged too extreme even for al-Qaida, which has captured large swathes of Iraq.

In May 2012 in Toulouse a gunman killed seven people, including a teacher and three children, at a Jewish school. "Jews in France or Belgium are being killed because they are Jews," says Cukierman. "Jihadism has become the new Nazism. This makes people consider leaving France."

The murders have not dampened anti-Jewish hatred. On the contrary, they seem to have inflamed it. The spike in anti-Semitism has seen emigration to Israel soar. In 2011 and 2012 just under 2,000 French Jews emigrated to Israel.

In 2013, the year after the Toulouse attack, 3,289 left. In the first quarter of this year 1,778 Jews emigrated. "This year I expect 5-6,000 Jews to leave," says Cukierman. "If they move to Israel because of Zionism, it's OK. But if it is because of fear, then that is not pleasant. The problem is that democracy is not well equipped to fight against terrorism. What we saw in Toulouse and Brussels is terrorism."

Across Europe Jewish communities are investing in security infrastructure and boosting protection. After the Toulouse attacks, the Jewish Agency established a Fund for Emergency Assistance. So far it has distributed almost $4m to boost security at 116 Jewish institutions in more than 30 countries. In Britain the government pays £2.5m a year for security guards at Jewish schools.

There is a direct link between events in the Middle East, especially ­concerning Israel/Palestine and spikes in anti-Semitism, says CST spokesman Mark Gardener. Gaza has caused a new spike in attacks. "The situation is like a pressure cooker, awaiting any spark to set it off, with local Jewish communities the targets of racist attacks."

So far, British Jews have not suffered a terrorist attack like Toulouse or ­Brussels, but not for want of jihadis trying. In 2011 Somali troops shot dead an al-Qaida leader in Africa when he tried to ram his car through a checkpoint. Documents found inside his car included detailed plans for attacks on Eton College, the Ritz and Dorchester hotels, and the Golders Green and Stamford Hill neighbourhoods of London, which have large Jewish populations.

The following year nine British jihadis were convicted of plotting terrorist acts including the potential targeting of two rabbis, and a husband-and-wife team from Oldham, north England, were convicted of plotting terrorist attacks on Manchester's Jewish community.

Muslims are over-represented among the perpetrators of anti-Semitic incidents, says Gardener. "It is not as extreme as France, Belgium, Holland or Malmo, where the levels of anti-Semitism make life difficult for Jews, but it is a phenomenon. A large number of Muslims believe that 9/11 was a Jewish plot, that Jews run the media and that Jewish money controls politicians. Of course there are Muslim organisations that speak out against anti-Semitism and many Muslim leaders are fully aware of the damage anti-Semitism does to their own community."

Yet the picture is not all bleak. In Berlin and Budapest Jewish life is flourishing. The epicentre of the Holocaust seems an unlikely centre for a Jewish renaissance. But the German capital is now home to one of the world's ­fastest-growing Jewish communities, tens of thousands strong. There is a growing sense, particularly among younger Germans, that the city is incomplete without a Jewish presence, especially in the arts, culture and literature. The glory days of the pre-war years can never be recreated, but they can be remembered and used as inspiration for a new form of German-Jewish culture.

Berlin's Jewish revival is boosted by influxes from Russia and a growing number of Israelis who have applied for German passports.

Budapest is home to the region's largest indigenous Jewish community, usually estimated at between 80,000 and 100,000, although perhaps a fifth of that number are affiliated with the Jewish community. Still the city is home to a dozen working synagogues, a thriving community centre, kosher shops, bars and restaurants and each summer hosts the Jewish summer festival, which is supported by the government and the municipality. District VII, the traditional Jewish quarter, is now the hippest part of town, home to numerous bohemian "ruin-pubs".

Communal life was moribund under Communism. Until recently, the ­Jewish establishment was perceived by many as insular and self-serving. Only now are a new generation of activists such as Adam Schönburger revitalising Jewish life, in part by focusing on cultural, social and ethical issues, rather than religion. Schönburger is one of the founders of Siraly, a Jewish cultural centre that will re-open later this year.

The result is a new confidence among many Hungarian Jews and a pride in their heritage. So much so that they are boycotting the government's Holocaust commemoration events, accusing the government of whitewashing the country's collaboration in the Holocaust &ndash which the government strongly denies, pointing out that numerous officials, including the president, have admitted Hungary's responsibility.

"We have to redefine what it means to be Jewish," says Schönburger. "I don't see many possibilities through solely religious continuity. We need to educate people about their heritage and have new reference points for them to feel connected. These can be cultural or through social activism, the idea of Tikkun Olam, 'healing the world'."

Few of the angry youths of the banlieues know that Muslims and Jews share a common history, of tolerance and co-existence.

Jewish life flourished under Islamic rule in Spain, an era known as the Golden Age, which produced some of the most important works of Jewish scholarship and a flowering of knowledge and science. Jews served as advisers to the Muslim rulers, as doctors, lawyers, teachers and engineers. Although there were sporadic outbreaks of violence, Jews living under Muslim rule in medieval times were far more prosperous, secure and integrated than those in Christian Europe.

When in 1492 the Jews were expelled from Spain, the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II was so incredulous that he sent a fleet of boats to collect them. Such a prize, of doctors, lawyers, scientists and traders, could not be allowed to slip by.

"Do they call this Ferdinand a wise prince who impoverishes his kingdom and enriches mine?" vra hy. The Jewish immigrants settled across the Ottoman empire, from Salonika to Baghdad.

Teaching about that common heritage, and the shared roots of Islam and Judaism could help defuse the hatred, argues Roger Cukierman. "We have to teach children, from the age of five or six to respect their neighbours, whatever their colour, religion or origin. This is not done today. We have to educate parents and the media, not to promote hatred."

Moderate Muslim and Jewish leaders are working together against campaigns to ban circumcision and ritual ­slaughter, says Ghaffar Hussain, of the Quilliam Foundation. "We only hear about what the extremists are doing. But we need to challenge extremist narratives and work for a liberal, secular democratic space, where people from a wide variety of backgrounds can thrive and co-exist."

The future of European Jewry is more than a question for Jews themselves, argues Natan Sharansky. "I would like to see strong Jewish communities in Europe, but they are more and more hesitant about what their future is. Europe's leaders are working hard to convince that Europe is multicultural and post-nationalist. But if the oldest minority in Europe feels uncomfortable and is disappearing, that raises questions of education and citizenship. That is the challenge for Europe's leaders."

Newsweek Update: Complaint response

On July 29, 2014, Nuusweek published an article entitled 'Exodus: Why Europe's Jews Are Fleeing Once Again'. The article referred to violence that erupted around the Don Isaac Abravanel Synagogue in the Rue de la Roquette in eastern Paris on July 13th, in the aftermath of a demonstration against Israel's war in Gaza, and further violence a week later in Sarcelles, north of Paris.

Nuusweek has received a complaint about this article. It accuses our coverage of being inaccurate and biased against pro-Palestinian demonstrators and French people of Arab and/or Muslim background. An investigation by Nuusweek has seen conflicting narratives emerge about these events. Here follows an update on the original report.

Aline Le Bail-Kremer, a local resident, witnessed the violence. She told Nuusweek: "From my windows, I saw two groups of around 100 people converge on the synagogue, from the two sides of the street. They had an aggressive attitude and were carrying baseball bats, chairs and tables, stolen from the bars and cafes around. They threw these in the direction of the people standing in front of the synagogue.

"I took a photograph of this. There was a fight with the synagogue security staff for more than forty minutes. It was a violent and frightening scene. There were shouts of 'Death to the Jews'. I was very frightened.

"The group attacking the synagogue on the Rue de la Roquette came from the end of an anti-Israel demonstration at Bastille. A second synagogue, nearby on Rue des Tournelles, was also attacked that day.

"The police arrived after more than 40 minutes and an hour later the street was quiet again. During these events around 150 people were trapped inside the synagogue where they had to stay for their own security. After more than 40 minutes, the police forces came and after more than one hour again, the place became quiet.

"I also saw that a group of young people, perhaps belonging to the Jewish Defence League [a militant Jewish organisation], used racist words and used violence against those attacking the synagogue. Overall, this was clearly an anti-Semitic attack on the synagogue."

CRIF, the Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions, says the Don Isaac Abravanel synagogue suffered an 'anti-Semitic attack'. CRIF said that young Jews protected people inside the synagogue as "dozens of protesters tried to enter with iron bars, pick handles and backpacks filled with dangerous projectiles".

On August 6th the New York Times published an article entitled 'A Militant Jewish Group Confronts Pro-Palestinian Protesters in France', about the activities of the Jewish Defence League. The article referenced events at Rue de la Roquette, noting "several congregation members who were there said demonstrators, some wielding metal bars and bats, had tried to scale the walls while [Jewish Defence] League members forced them back by tossing table and chairs".

However, pro-Palestinian groups strongly deny that the Don Isaac Abravanel synagogue was attacked by anti-Israel demonstrators. They say no projectiles were thrown at the building and no protestors came within 150m of the synagogue. The violence, they said, was instigated by the Jewish Defence League, whose members were hurling projectiles at pro-Palestinian demonstrators.

In an interview with i>Télé, a French digital channel, Erwan Simon, one of the organisers of the demonstration, said that militant Jews were chanting "Death to Arabs, Israel will win", from behind the police lines.

The organisers of the pro-Palestinian demonstration specifically requested protestors not to go to Rue de la Roquette to confront the militant Jewish protestors, said Mr Simon. He also asked why the police did not intervene to stop the violence when hundreds of officers had been deployed nearby, a question also asked by many Jews.

A video posted on YouTube shows a street battle between two groups.

A second video purports to show the view from inside the synagogue as the fighting raged outside:

Serge Benhaim, the president of the Don Isaac Abravanel Synagogue, told Nuusweek that the synagogue was not directly attacked. There were between four and five hundred pro-Palestinian demonstrators in the Rue de la Roquette but they did not get within two hundred metres of the building. Some were carrying weapons, but no projectiles were thrown at the building.

"I can say that the synagogue was not directly attacked. But I cannot say what would have happened if they had arrived in front of the synagogue or inside it."

Mr Benhaim said that the violence had started at the pro-Palestinian demonstration, which was five hundred metres away. "They probably heard that we were praying for peace in the synagogue and the address is well known."

Mr Benhaim said that the Jewish Defence League had not instigated the violence. "There were 20 or 30 of them inside or around the synagogue. They did not provoke anything. I was a witness to the whole thing. Any accusation that the Jewish Defence League started the violence is a lie. I am not a supporter of the League but I have to be objective and say the truth."

Five people were arrested after the events on Rue de la Roquette, according to Agnes Thibault-Lecuivre, of the Paris prosecution service. One person was sentenced to four months in prison for resisting arrest. One received a two month prison sentence, suspended another received a 200 euro fine, also suspended. None of those arrested have been or will be charged with anti-Semitic hate crimes. The investigation is now closed.

On July 21 Le Figaro published a lengthy article about the violence in Sarcelles. The article quoted Francois Pupponi, the deputy mayor of Sarcelles, as saying: "This is the first time I have seen protesters saying 'Death to the Jews' while carrying Turkish flags".

Mr Pupponi's office did not respond to Nuusweek's emails and telephone calls seeking clarification of this quote. Le Figaro has not received any requests for correction.

In an interview with BFMTV.com, Mr Pupponi denounced what he called "a horde of savages, very young people that decided to turn to a very basic form of anti-Semitism and express this by attacking this synagogue in broad daylight with their faces uncovered."

"As we were warned, we tried with the police to prevent them from doing this at this synagogue, but they managed to smash some shops up elsewhere. This is not an issue of community against community. This is a case of a limited number of individuals who have decided to express a form of mindless violence."

Pro-Palestinian groups strongly deny that the crowd in Sarcelles shouted "Death to the Jews". They say there is no evidence to support these claims and point to the absence of news reports or social media recording such chants. In addition, they say the violence did not specifically target Jews, and many non-Jewish businesses were also attacked. The violence was a result of hooliganism, not anti-Semitism.

Video posted on YouTube shows local youths trying to break into ticket machines and pulling down CCTV cameras and protesters chanting against Israel.

Video also shows Jews gathered around the Synagogue in Sarcelles to protect it from protesters, while they sing the French national anthem.

Newsweek reported that leaflets had been distributed in advance, calling for violence against the Jews. The following clip from BFMTV shows French Interior minister, Bernard Cazeneuve with what he claims is an example of such a leaflet.

This is unverifiable as no such leaflets have been viewed by Nuusweek. But graffiti at a bus-stop called for protesters to demonstrate in the Jewish quarter, and bring "mortars, fire extinguishers and batons". See this video at 10.52 minutes.

The arguments over what happened in July will continue. But France's Jewish community remains traumatised. Mr Benhaim told Nuusweek: "Four months later, the Jewish community is still in shock. As well as the events of July 13, there were those in Sarcelles, Aulnay-sous-Bois, Garges les Gonesse, Barbes, Montreuil and Lyon, where the real intention to assault Jews was evident.

"On a day-to-day basis we have excellent relations with our Muslims and Arab friends. But we who are French and Jewish do not understand why there is such wild violence in demonstrations to support the Palestinians when there is no reaction against what happens to Christians in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Nigeria and Central Africa. Why is there no reaction for the victims in Syria, Egypt and Algeria? Why are there so many demonstrations against the Jewish state? Jewish people are very concerned about the situation here. They are thinking about their future in France, their country."


Will there ever be peace?

Because I know that Satan’s war against God fuels this conflict, I am certain Yeshua is the only hope for resolving the issues in this troubled region. Scripture instructs us to pray for the peace of Jerusalem (Psalm 122:6) and promises God’s blessing on those who bless the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
(Genesis 12:3).

Let us pray that God will open the eyes and hearts of both Jewish people and Arabs to believe in Yeshua. He Himself is our peace (Ephesians 2:14). Although complete peace seems unlikely before Yeshua’s return, personal peace and transformed lives will be the result as increasing numbers become Believers in the Middle East during these last days.


Postwar Refugee Crisis and the Establishment of the State of Israel

During World War II, the Nazis deported between seven and nine million Europeans, mostly to Germany. Within months of Germany's surrender in May 1945, the Allies repatriated to their home countries more than six million displaced persons (DPs wartime refugees). Between 1.5 million and two million DPs refused repatriation.

Most Jewish survivors, who had survived concentration camps or had been in hiding, were unable or unwilling to return to eastern Europe because of postwar antisemitism and the destruction of their communities during the Holocaust. Many of those who did return feared for their lives. In Poland, for example, locals initiated several violent pogroms. The worst was the one in Kielce in 1946 in which 42 Jews, all survivors of the Holocaust, were killed. These pogroms led to a significant second movement of Jewish refugees from Poland to the west.

Many Holocaust survivors moved westward to territories liberated by the western Allies. They were housed in displaced persons (DP camps and urban displaced persons centers. The Allies established such camps in Allied-occupied Germany, Austria, and Italy for refugees waiting to leave Europe. Most of the Jewish displaced persons were in the British occupation zone in northern Germany and in the American occupation zone in the south. The British established a large displaced persons camp adjacent to the former concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen in Germany. Several large camps holding 4,000 to 6,000 displaced persons each—Feldafing, Landsberg, and Foehrenwald—were located in the American zone.

Major camps for Jewish displaced persons, 1945-1946 - US Holocaust Memorial Museum

At its peak in 1947, the Jewish displaced person population reached approximately 250,000. While the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) administered all of the displaced persons camps and centers, Jewish displaced persons achieved a large measure of internal autonomy.

A variety of Jewish agencies were active in the displaced persons camps. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee provided refugees with food and clothing, and the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) offered vocational training. Jewish displaced persons also formed self-governing organizations, and many worked toward the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. There were central committees of Jewish displaced persons in the American and British zones which, as their primary goals, pressed for greater immigration opportunities and the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

In the United States, immigration restrictions strictly limited the number of refugees permitted to enter the country. The British, who had received a mandate from the League of Nations to administer Palestine, severely restricted Jewish immigration there largely because of Arab objections. Many countries closed their borders to immigration. Despite these obstacles, many Jewish displaced persons attempted to leave Europe as soon as possible.

The Jewish Brigade Group, formed as a unit within the British army in late 1944, worked with former partisans to help organize the Brihah (literally "escape"), the exodus of 250,000 Jewish refugees across closed borders from inside Europe to the coast in an attempt to sail for Palestine. Die Mosad le-Aliyah Bet, an agency established by the Jewish leadership in Palestine, organized "illegal" immigration (Aliyah Bet) by ship. However, the British intercepted most of the ships.

In 1947, for example, the British stopped the Exodus 1947 at the port of Haifa. The ship had 4,500 Holocaust survivors on board, who were returned to Germany on British vessels. In most cases, the British detained the refugees—over 50,000—in detention camps on the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The British use of detention camps as a deterrent failed, and the flood of immigrants attempting entry into Palestine continued.

The internment of Jewish refugees—many of them Holocaust survivors—turned world opinion against British policy in Palestine. The report of the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry in January 1946 led US president Harry Truman to pressure Britain into admitting 100,000 Jewish refugees into Palestine.

As the crisis escalated, the British government decided to submit the problem of Palestine to the United Nations (UN). In a special session, the UN General Assembly voted on November 29, 1947, to partition Palestine into two new states, one Jewish and the other Arab, a recommendation that Jewish leaders accepted and the Arabs rejected.

After the British began the withdrawal of their military forces from Palestine in early April 1948, Zionist leaders moved to establish a modern Jewish state. On May 14, 1948, David Ben-Gurion, the chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, announced the formation of the state of Israel, declaring,

"The Nazi Holocaust, which engulfed millions of Jews in Europe, proved anew the urgency of the reestablishment of the Jewish State, which would solve the problem of Jewish homelessness by opening the gates to all Jews and lifting the Jewish people to equality in the family of nations."

Holocaust survivors from displaced persons camps in Europe and from detention camps on Cyprus were welcomed into the Jewish homeland. Many of them fought in Israel's War of Independence in 1948 and 1949. In 1953, Yad Vashem (The Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority), the national institution for Holocaust commemoration, was established.

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