Geskiedenis Podcasts

Boxer Rebellion - Geskiedenis

Boxer Rebellion - Geskiedenis


Toe 'n anti-buitelandse groep, bekend as 'die boksers', in China opstandig raak en Peking beset, het die VSA en baie ander lande 'n internasionale poging aangewend om die buitelandse legasies in Peking te verlig. Die VSA was 'n volle deelnemer aan die pogings, maar verklaar duidelik dat hulle gekant is teen enige buitelandse pogings om China as gevolg van die opstand op te bou.

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Die groeiende pogings van Europese moondhede en Japan om China te koloniseer, het wrok en toenemende opposisie veroorsaak. Dit gekombineer met 'n ernstige droogte het onrus in China veroorsaak en gelei tot die opkoms van die bokserbeweging. Hulle naam het hul oorsprong as deel van die krygsgeselskap, wat konserwatiewe sosiale norme bevorder het; dit het gou die aandag gevestig op buitelandse invloed en dit die skuld gegee vir die agteruitgang van die Chinese samelewing. Hulle het spoedig begin om kerke en ander simbole van missionêre teenwoordigheid in China aan te val.

Parallel met die opkoms van boksers, het die Chinese regering gepoog om 'n omvattende hervorming. Die tydperk staan ​​bekend as die honderd dae van hervorming. Die Guangxu -keiser staan ​​agter die hervormings wat konserwatiewe lede van die Chinese elite teëgestaan ​​het. Hulle ondersteun keiserin Dowager Cixi wat die mag oorgeneem het. Die keiserin het aanvanklik teen die boksers baklei, maar het haar posisie aan die begin van 1900 verander. Die bokserbeweging het vinnig versprei. Buitelandse legasies is deur die Chinese regering toegelaat om troepe te stuur om hul legasies in Being te verdedig. Amerikaanse mariniers was 'n belangrike deel van die mag. Die boksers bars in die buitelandse kwartier van die stad en omring die buitelanders wat hoofsaaklik deur Amerikaanse mariniers verdedig word.

Die buitelandse legasies het besluit om 'n reddingsmag van ongeveer 2000 te stuur, wat beteken dat hulle meer as voldoende sou dink om die weg na Bejing te kry en die beleërde legasies te verlig. Die weermag onder die Britse vise -admiraal Edward Seymour kon nie Bejing nie, en dit moes deur 'n ekstra buitelandse mag gered word. Intussen het 'n totaal van 473 buitelanders, 409 soldate en 3000 Chinese Christene in Beijing vanaf 20 Junie in die Being Legation Quarter gehou.

Intussen het die buitelandse magte hul magte in China opgebou met die doel om die legasies te verlig. Uiteindelik was daar 'n mag van 55,000, bestaande uit Japannees (20,840), Russies (13,150), Britte (12,020), Frans (3,520), VS (3,420), Duits (900), Italiaans (80), Oostenryks-Hongaars (75) en anti-bokser Chinese troepe. Twintigduisend van hulle het na Bejing gekom. Beide 50 000 boksers is daarteen gekant, sowel as gewone Chinese troepe. Dit was 120 kilometer van Tianjin na Bejing. Die geallieerde magte het sporadies teëgekom deur die Chinese. Die mees dodelike vyand was die kop en humiditeit. Die mag bereik Beijing op 14 Augustus 1900. Na 'n kort, maar lewendige verdediging het die Chinese troepe teruggetrek, en die geallieerde troepe het die legasies verlig en die stad beset. Die bokser het die volgende jaar steeds Christene in China doodgemaak en die geallieerde magte wat groot dele van Noord -China verower het, het hul eie gruweldade gepleeg teen Chinese burgers.

Die jaar van onrus is beëindig deur die ondertekening van die Boxer -protokol, wat die teregstelling van die leiers van die Boxer -beweging en sy ondersteuners tot gevolg gehad het en die vergoeding van 450.000.000 silwer in totaal betaal. Die VSA het sy deel gebruik om beurse aan Chinese studente te verskaf.

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Hoe China imperialisme beveg het met die bokseropstand

Vanaf 1899 was die Boxer Rebellion 'n opstand in China teen buitelandse invloed op godsdiens, politiek en handel. In die gevegte het die boksers duisende Chinese Christene doodgemaak en probeer om die buitelandse ambassades in Beijing te bestorm. Na 'n beleg van 55 dae, is die ambassades onthef deur 20.000 Japannese, Amerikaanse en Europese troepe. In die nasleep van die opstand is verskeie strafekspedisies geloods en is die Chinese regering genoodsaak om die 'Boxer -protokol' te onderteken wat die leiers van die rebellie teregstel en die betaling van finansiële herstel aan die beseerde lande.


Die Bokseropstand

The Boxer Rebellion was 'n anti-buitelandse/Christelike beweging deur die Society of Rright and Harmonious Fists in China. In reaksie op imperialistiese uitbreiding en missionêre evangelisasie, het plaaslike organisasies in 1898 in Shandong begin ontstaan. Eers is hulle onderdruk deur die Qing -dinastie, maar later het die keiserin -weduwee probeer om die westerse invloed uit China te verdryf met aggressies wat op buitelandse sendelinge gemik was. Boksers regoor Noord -China het sendingverbindings aangeval wat buitelandse sendelinge en Chinese Christene doodgemaak het.

In die somer van 1900 is 239 sendelinge in China gemartel in die sogenaamde Boxer Rebellion. Hiervan was 189 Protestantse en 40 Katolieke. Die twee sendinggenootskappe met die grootste aantal martelare was die China Inland Mission, wat nou Overseas Missionary Fellowship genoem word, en The Christian and Missionary Alliance. Die CIM (OMF) verloor 79, en die C &MA verloor 36. Elkeen van hierdie sendelinge was daartoe verbind om die Here in China te dien om hoop en lig vir haar miljoene te bring.

Baie dinge het bygedra tot die massamoord van buitelandse sendelinge, die grootste martelaarskap ooit in die geskiedenis van Christelike sendings. China was in 'n groot omwenteling. Die Mantsjoe -dinastie, van Mongoolse oorsprong, was 'n baie ongewilde dinastie wat op die randjie van omverwerping wankel.

Ontevredenheid het deur die land begin veg en die dinastie van die keiserin Dowagers bedreig. Die mense het uitgeroep dat China van alle buitelandse invloed ontslae moet raak, sowel die Westerse imperialisme as die Mantsjoe -dinastie. Die keiserin het dit egter reggekry om die opstand van mense teen westerlinge en veral sendelinge te keer. Sy het die mense oortuig dat die rampe in China die gevolg was van die afwyking van die ou Chinese godsdiens vir die nuwe vreemde. Die geeste was kwaad omdat voorvaderaanbidding verwaarloos was. Die oortuiging dat Westerse koeëls dit nie kan seermaak nie, en onder die invloed van dwelms en Satan, het die boksers, meestal jong mans, probeer om China van alle buitelanders te bevry. Die keiserin het haar lot by die Boxers ingegooi en besluit dat buitelanders in China vermoor moet word.

Sendelinge is nie net doodgemaak nie, maar ook talle Chinese herders het hul lewens verloor, asook meer as 32 000 Christene. Net soos die martelare van Hebreërs 11, was hulle almal kampioene van die geloof en dapper ambassadeurs van Jesus Christus. Hierdie massamartel van sendelinge en Christene het die mees gewelddadige eeu van vervolging van die Christelike kerk ingelui. Hieronder is die verhale van Alliance -sendelinge wat tydens die opstand omgekom het.

Geskiedenis van die C &MA Sweedse sendelinge in China

In 1893 het 'n groep van ongeveer 50 Sweedse sendelinge na China gegaan om die evangelie aan die onbereiktes te gee. Ds William Emanuel Franken van Swede het hulle gestuur met die verstandhouding dat The Christian and Missionary Alliance vervoer en ondersteuning sou bied. 'N Alliansie -sendeling Emanuel Olsson, 'n sendeling van Sjina self, is gekies om hul superintendent te wees. Die Alliance Magazine op 20 Oktober 1900 het die volgende artikel.

Hierdie Sweedse sendelinge was ernstige, selfverloënende werkers wat hul dienste aan die Alliansie aangebied het onder leiding van 'n toegewyde en merkwaardige sendeling met die naam Emannel Olsson. Hulle het hul bereidwilligheid uitgespreek om op 'n uiters matige toelaag van hoogstens tweehonderd dollar per jaar te leef. Verskeie partye is na die noorde van China gestuur. Hulle veld was 'n groot verwaarloosde distrik wat anderkant die Groot Muur van China lê. Hulle het in die begin meer as vyftig sendelinge getel en het byna twintig verskillende stasies beset, wat 'n distrik van honderde myl beslaan. Hulle was ywerige, nederige, selfverloënende sendelinge. Die reëling was aan een groot nadeel onderworpe. Dat dit buitelanders was wat nie deur die tuisraad en mense bekend was nie, en dit was dus moeilik om as volledige verhoudings tussen gemeenskap en samewerking aan te gaan, soos in die geval van die sendelinge wat van ons eie opleidingsinstituut en ons midde. Hulle werk is baie geseënd en hulle het die reg op diepe liefde gekry. Hul superintendent, eerwaarde Emil Olsson en vrou, was Amerikaanse Swede en was werkers van 'n baie hoë vlak van bekwaamheid wat algemeen in die noordweste bekend was.

Brief van mnr Carl Lundberg

van Kwei, is Hua-Cheng gestuur na die Holy Union Mission in Swede. Gedateer 16 Augustus 1900.

Geagte Pastoor Kilstet,

Hoe wonderlik is die Here in al sy doen en late! Wie kan Sy weë verstaan? Geagte sendingvriende, u het waarskynlik gehoor hoe die storms van vervolging in China uitgebreek het, en u het ook na Shansi gekom na u arbeidsveld en ons s'n van die C &MA, en die C. I. M. het ook hul deel daarvan gekry. Nadat mnr. Lundeberg vertel het hoe die tien sendelinge van die Holy Union Mission vermoor is, en onder hulle meneer en mev. Forsberg, van ons sending en hul kind, is die sendelinge gestenig en die kind in stukke geskeur. Die oproer begin in Kwei-Hua-Cheng waar ons was, en daarom het ons die plek verlaat en gedink om na Urza te gaan en na Rusland, maar toe ons twee dae van Kwei Thea af was, is al ons goed van ons gesteel, die rowers val ons agt keer aan. Hulle het van ons klere uit ons liggame gehaal, sodat ons honger en koue moes ly. Vier Katolieke sendelinge op daardie plek het van ons gehoor en boodskappers na ons gestuur om ons hierheen te bring. Die laaste boodskapper het ons gevind en ons was agt dae hier, maar ook hier is daar 'n groot gevaar. Die boksers kom om die plek te vernietig. Baie Katolieke nedersettings is bederf en duisende Chinese is dood en ons stasie wat ons ken, is vernietig.

Ons weet niks van die ander sendelinge nie, maar by ons hier van die C &MA is meneer en mevrou Emil Olson en hul drie kinders, meneer en mev Edvin Andersson, en hul twee kinders, juffrou Emilie Erickson, en mev. Carl Lundberg en hul kinders. As ons nie met ons lewens moet uitkom nie, stuur dan ons laaste boodskap aan alle sendingvriende. Ons lewe en sterf vir die Here en China. Die pad na die kus is nie oop nie. Ons het byna twee maande niks van Peking gehoor nie, maar die pad is oop, dankie aan Hom. Laat u hande nie misluk nie en moenie u moed verloor nie. Wat ons saai, sal vrugte dra op sy tyd. As die storm verby is, stuur ander getuies na China om die groot daad van die Here te verkondig. Ek is nie spyt dat ek na China gekom het nie. Ek weet dat die Here my hierheen geroep het, en sy genade is genoeg vir my. Die manier waarop hy lei, is die beste; Sy wil geskied. Ons ontmoet aan sy regterhand.

22 Augustus 1900

Nou kom die soldate en hulle gaan ons vandag hier aanval. Die Katolieke gaan hulself verdedig, maar dit het geen nut nie; ons wil nie doodgaan met wapens in ons hande nie. As God dit toelaat, mag hulle ons lewens neem. Ons sterf met geloof in die Here en weet dat Hy ons siele kan red sonder om op die Katolieke Kerk te vertrou. Die priesters het ons gister gevra of ons bereid is om in te gaan of in verbinding te tree met die enigste reddende kerk, en of ons nie bang was as ons verkeerd gegaan het en nie gered moes word nie, maar ons het almal geantwoord dat ons weet in wie ons glo, en dat ons nie onseker was nie en dat ons as protestante, ja, as Christene, sou sterf. God seën julle almal. Ons sal Jesus ontmoet.

Die uwe, gelukkig in Jesus, Carl L. Lundberg.

Die Bokseropstand

Soos reënwolke wat eers klein is, maar gou word dit groot en donker wolke wat die helderblou hemele verberg en weerlig, donderweer en groot reën in die somer van 1900 uitbreek. die “Boxer Rebellion genoem. ”

Die Boxers (I-ho-t ’uan), soos hulle hulself noem, het hul oorsprong onder die berge in die provinsie Shantung. Lede neem deel aan 'n tipe gimnastiek en beskou hulself as geeste, wat hulle magiese kragte gee. Die sekte is deur keiser Kia-ching omstreeks 1810 in 'n openbare edik veroordeel. Die onlangse leiers het die beweging aangemoedig, terwyl die volgersprogram die krag van die Manchu -dinastie behou en alle buitelanders uit China uitroei. ”

Die boksers is aangemoedig deur Yonglu (onder-koning van Chihli) en prins Tuan van Peking, wat mag en aansien wou verkry deur die keiser af te sit. Die keiser (Uhsein) het neig om buitelanders na die land te nooi om China te industrialiseer.

Hulle het 'n program begin om haat teenoor liberale en buitelanders aan te wakker. In 1898 het 'n staatsgreep in Peking plaasgevind waar die keiser afgedank is en die “ venster-keiserin ” heerskappy geneem het. Daar was rede om te glo dat die keiserin verstandelik gestrem was en maklik deur haar ondersteuners beïnvloed kon word.

Die keiserin en haar aanhangers was van mening dat die keiser en sy party hul liberale idees uit die Weste ontvang het deur hul literatuur te bestudeer en na buitelanders te luister. Daar het dus 'n wrede gevolg teen die hervormingsparty van die keiser uitgebreek en die meeste van die leiers van die party is gedood. Die keiserin onderteken 'n bevel wat die leër toelaat om alle ondersteuners van die keiser en alle buitelanders in China dood te maak. So het die Boxer Rebellion begin.

Die weermag, gewoonlik onder bevel van boksers, of simpatiseerders, het deur China gevlieg en alle buitelanders vermoor, sowel as Chinese wat met hulle omgegaan het. Daar was groot weermagondersteuning omdat hulle die besittings van die buitelanders wat hulle vermoor het, kon bewaar.

Van die buitelanders wat vermoor is, is 135 protestantse sendelinge en ongeveer 51 van hul kinders vermoor. Hiervan sterf 41 Sweedse sendelinge saam met 15 kinders. Van diegene in die Christelike en Missionêre Alliansie, 21 sendelinge en 14 kinders, van die Heiligheid Alliansie 10 sendelinge, van die Scandinavian Alliance Mongol Mission 5 sendelinge en van die China Island Mission 2 sendelinge.


Die Weerstand

In reaksie hierop het die gewone mense in China besluit om 'n verset te reël. Hulle het 'n spiritualistiese/vechtkunstenbeweging gevorm, wat baie mistieke of magiese elemente bevat, soos die oortuiging dat die "boksers" self koeëls ondeurdringbaar kan wees. Die Engelse naam "Boxers" kom van die Britse gebrek aan 'n woord vir gevegskunstenaars, en dus die gebruik van die naaste Engelse ekwivalent.

Aanvanklik het die boksers die Qing -regering ingepak met die ander buitelanders wat uit China verdryf moes word. Die Qing -dinastie was immers nie etnies Han -Chinees nie, maar eerder Mantsjoe. Gevang tussen die dreigende westerse buitelanders aan die een kant en 'n woedende Han -Chinese bevolking aan die ander kant, was die keiserin Dowager Cixi en ander Qing -amptenare aanvanklik onseker oor hoe hulle op die boksers sou reageer. Uiteindelik het die Qing en die boksers besluit dat die buitelanders 'n groter bedreiging vorm, en Beijing het uiteindelik die rebelle ondersteun met keiserlike troepe.


Amerikaanse mariniers in die Boxer Rebellion

In 1900 het 'n krisis in China uitgebreek toe die "Boxers" hul weerstand teen buitelandse invloed en teenwoordigheid verhoog het. Teen die einde van die negentiende eeu het verskeie lande reeds invloedsfere in China gevestig. In die herfs van 1899 het minister van buitelandse sake, John Hay, geskryf dat die Verenigde State, 'n laat aankoms, 'n 'oop deurbeleid' in China wou handhaaf. As die boksers daarin slaag om die Verenigde State en ander buiteland uit te stoot, kan hierdie nuut geopende deur binnekort gesluit word.

Ontevredenheid met buitelanders neem toe toe in China sedert 1898, toe die "I Ho Ch'uan" (Genootskap van "Regverdige en harmonieuse vuiste") gewild geword het in 'n provinsie in die noordweste van China. Hierdie groep wat gewoonlik 'boksers' genoem word, was teen buitelandse invloed en was sterk teen-Christelik. Die groep se getalle het toegeneem met boere en ander werkers wat geraak is deur droogtes wat op die hakke van verwoestende vloede gekom het. Boksers het Chinese Christene en buitelandse sendelinge begin teister. Namate Boxer -aktiwiteite na verskeie provinsies versprei het, was provinsiale leiers en die Chinese keiserlike hof inkonsekwent in hul standpunte. Owerhede het soms baklei om buitelanders en Christene te beskerm, en ander kere het hulle besluit om niks te doen nie. Tzu Hsi, die keiserin-weduwee van die Mantsjoe-dinastie, was in die openbaar 'anti-bokser'.

Die Verenigde State en sewe ander lande-Oostenryk-Hongarye, Frankryk, Duitsland, Groot-Brittanje, Italië, Japan en Rusland-het almal belange in China. Hierdie agt buitelandse moondhede het ook legasies in die Legation Quarter van Peking gehandhaaf

Die bevolking van Peking het begin toeneem namate honderde buitelandse sendelinge en Chinese Christene na die stad begin stroom het vir beskerming. Op 28 en 29 Mei het boksers verskeie spoorwegstasies tussen Peking en Paotingfu verbrand, waaronder die groot spoorwegaansluiting by Fengtai. Die legasies in Peking, uit vrees dat hulle geïsoleer word, word vinnig vir hulp getelegrafeer. Die onmiddellike reaksie was die ontplooiing van matrose en mariniers vanaf buitelandse skepe buite China

Op 31 Mei het kapt. John T. Myers, USMC, in Peking aangekom met die algemene bevel oor twee skeepsafdelings van Amerikaanse mariniers. Hierdie nuutgestigte Legation Guard het bestaan ​​uit Myers en vyf-en-twintig mariniers van die USS Oregon saam met kapt. Newt Hall, USMC, drie-en-twintig mariniers, vyf matrose en assistent-chirurg T.M. Lippett van die Amerikaanse vloot van die USS Newark.4 Op dieselfde dag in Peking is ongeveer 350 buitelandse matrose en mariniers gestuur om hul onderskeie legasies te beskerm

Op 18 Junie het ministers van buitelandse sake in Peking van die Chinese regering kennis geneem dat daar binnekort 'n oorlogstoestand van krag sou wees. Die verklaring kom in reaksie op die verowering van die Chinese forte by Taku deur die vreemde moondhede die vorige dag. Die ministers van Buitelandse Sake het vier en twintig uur tyd gekry om Peking te verlaat met die belofte van veilige deurreis so ver suid as Tientsin. Die ministers het die volgende dag vergader en die aanbod om te vertrek geweier. Die keiserin -weduwee het 'n oorlogsverklaring uitgereik met lof vir 'die dapper volgelinge van die boksers'. Op 20 Junie het boksers en Chinese soldate 'n beleg van die stad begin

Chinese artillerie en vuurwapens het konstant geword. Daar was geen georganiseerde aanvalle op die legasies nie. Op die vyf en twintigste het mariniers 'n kritieke standpunt ingeneem oor die Tartarmuur. Sedert die aanvang van die beleg het Chinese magte 'n entjie van die voorkant van die mariniers versperrings gebou. Die nag van 28 Junie het Pvt. Richard Quinn het een van hierdie versperrings herken deur op sy hande en knieë na die Chinese posisie te kruip. Omstreeks tweeuur die volgende oggend het kaptein Myers Amerikaanse mariniers en Britse en Russiese troepe onder leiding van die Chinese versperring gelei. Die aanval, wat tydens 'n reënbui uitgevoer is, was suksesvol, die Chinese het teruggeval na 'n ander versperring honderde meter agter. Twee seevaarders is dood, en Myers is in die been gewond.8 Die mariniers het hul posisie teen die muur hervat, en die daaglikse artillerie -ontploffings en sluipskuttersvuur van Chinese handwapens het soos voorheen voortgegaan.

Kaptein Hall neem bevel oor die Legation Guard nadat kaptein Myers gewond is. Die sluipskutter- en artillerievuur het tot die minimum gedood nadat 'n informele skietstilstand op die sestiende plaasgevind het. Hierdie aktiwiteit het voortgeduur totdat die vreemde legasies op 14 Augustus verlig is.

Amerikaanse mariniers het aan verskeie aksies in China deelgeneem nadat Myers se mag Peking bereik het. Voordat die beleg begin het, het 'n geallieerde mag noord van Tientsin na Peking beweeg, dae nadat 'n spoorlyn geskeur is en die hoofstad geïsoleer het. Viseadmiraal sir Edward Seymour van die Britse koninklike vloot het hierdie leiding gelei met die kaptein Bowman McCalla van die Amerikaanse vloot as tweede in bevel. Seymour se ekspedisie het 112 Amerikaanse matrose en mariniers ingesluit. Die geallieerde mag het noord gereis en die spoorlyn herbou terwyl hulle gegaan het. Seymour se ekspedisie het binne vyf en twintig myl van Peking gekom, maar is deur boksers en Chinese soldate gedwing om terug te keer na Tientsin. Na vyf dae se terugtrek in die suide, het Seymour se mag hom ingevaar in 'n Chinese arsenaal ses myl noord van Tientsin, waar hulle hul posisie versterk en op hulp gewag het.

Die Verenigde State het vinnig geskarrel om ekstra troepe te stuur om die beleg van Peking op te hef. Twee afsonderlike afdelings mariniers het Cavite op die Filippynse Eilande verlaat en naby Taku, China, aangesluit. Die eerste afdeling het bestaan ​​uit 107 mariniers van die Eerste Regiment, wat Cavite op USS verlaat het Troos. Die tweede afskeiding van twee en dertig mariniers het van Cavite aan boord van die USS gevaar Nashville.9 Rondom 18 Junie het die twee mariene afdelings saamgevoeg tot 'n bataljon onder bevel van majoor Littleton W.T. Waller. Op die twintigste het hierdie mariene bataljon en ongeveer vierhonderd Russe die Chinese naby Tientsin betrek. Die mariniers was die speerpunt van die Amerikaans-Russiese aanval, maar het min sukses behaal teen die meer aansienlike Chinese magte. Na 'n oorweldigende teenaanval het die Amerikaners en Russe teruggetrek. Die mariniers vorm die agterhoede van die terugtog, waarin hulle vier uur lank agtervolg is. Uiteindelik waar hulle begin het, het die mariniers altesaam 30 kilometer opgeruk nadat hulle na Tientsin gegaan en terug is. Hulle het drie sterftes en sewe gewondes opgedoen.10 Twee dae later is Waller se bataljon en die Russiese mag versterk tot tweeduisend man met die aankoms van Britse, Russiese, Duitse, Italiaanse en Japannese troepe. Hierdie vergrote mag het die volgende dag in die aanval gegaan en alles behalwe die ommuurde stad Tientsin ingeneem. Op die vyf-en-twintigste verlig die internasionale mag Seymour se ekspedisie, wat 'n maand lank by die Hsi-Ku Arsenal noord van Tientsin gehou is.

Die negende Amerikaanse infanterie het op 6 Julie aangekom en by die geallieerde magte naby Tientsin aangesluit. Die aantal mariniers in China het toegeneem toe kolonel Robert L. Meade en 318 mariniers op 10 Julie uit die Filippyne aan boord van die USS aankom Brooklyn.12 Hierdie skeiding mariniers het van die kus na Tientsin verhuis, waar dit by Waller se bataljon aangesluit het, en Meade het die bevel oor die Amerikaanse magte oorgeneem. Die volgende dag het die geallieerde mag 'n aanval op Tientsin geloods om die ommuurde middestad van die oorblywende Chinese en boksermagte te bevry. Die aanvallende mag, onder bevel van 'n Britse generaal, het die mariniers, die negende Amerikaanse infanterie en Britse, Franse, Duitse, Japannese en Russiese magte ingesluit. Die geveg het die grootste deel van die dag plaasgevind, met min om te wys. Van die 451 mariniers wat by hierdie aksie betrokke was, het sewentien mans en vier offisiere slagoffers geword. Hierdie deurbraak het wydverspreide plundering van die stad veroorsaak.

Op 30 Julie het genl. Adna R. Chaffee, die Amerikaanse weermag, in Tientsin aangekom en die bevel oor alle Amerikaanse troepe in China geneem. twee bataljons van die veertiende Amerikaanse infanterie, die sesde Amerikaanse kavallerie, en een battery van die vyfde Amerikaanse artillerie. Die belangrikste doel van die ekspedisie was om die legasies in Peking te verlig en Amerikaanse belange in China te beskerm. Op 4 Augustus het die internasionale ekspedisie van ongeveer 18 000 Tientsin vertrek na Peking Chaffee se mag van ongeveer 2 500 Amerikaners, insluitend 482 mariniers.15 Op 5 Augustus het Japannese troepe die Chinese by Pei-tsang aangeval en verslaan. Die volgende dag het 'n deel van die internasionale mag, insluitend die mariniers, suksesvol geveg by Yangstun. Baie lede van die internasionale mag het tydens die opmars van tagtig myl aan hitte-uitputting gely as gevolg van die hoë temperature en af ​​en toe gevegte van Tientsin na Peking.

Op die veertiende het die internasionale mag Peking bereik en die legasies verlig. By die bereiking van Peking het die mariene eenheid naby die noordelike hek gestop terwyl 'n peloton bo -op die muur gegaan het om die sluipskutter te stop en die artillerie te beskerm. Twee private en luitenant Smedley Butler is gewond.17 Die volgende dag het mariniers deelgeneem aan die opmars van die keiserlike stad.18 Nadat gevegte in Peking tot 'n einde gekom het, het ligte weerstand in verskillende dele van China voortgeduur. Die meeste van hierdie aktiwiteite is deur Duitse troepe bestry totdat die Boxer -protokol ('n formele vredesverdrag) in September 1901 onderteken is.

Teen die tyd dat die beleg opgehef is, het die Legation Guard agtien slagoffers gely. Sewe aangewese mans is dood, en elf lede van die Legation Guard is gewond, waaronder kaptein Myers en assistent -chirurg Lippitt.20 Begin September het die afdeling Peking na Tientsin verlaat en die siekes en vlugtelinge bewaak. Die manne van die Legation Guard het teruggekeer na die skepe waarop hulle gedien het voordat hulle vir diens in China losgemaak is. Kaptein Myers is na die Naval -hospitaal in Yokohama, Japan, gestuur en kaptein Hall het na die USS teruggekeer Newark.21

Bykomende mariniers het middel Augustus in China aangekom, maar het nie deelgeneem aan die verligting van Peking nie. Einde September is die oorblywende mariniers in China terug bestel na die Filippyne en gestuur na die Filippyne Brooklyn, Zafiro, en Indiana.22

Kort nadat Peking verlig is, het die Amerikaanse minister van China, EH Conger, die minister van buitelandse sake geskryf: 'Vir ons mariniers het die moeilikste en gevaarlikste deel van die verdediging geval vanweë ons naby die groot stadsmuur en die belangrikste stadspoorte waaroor die groot gewere is geplant. Ons legasie, met die posisie wat ons teen die muur gehou het, was die sleutel tot die hele situasie. "23 Conger het verder geskryf dat" die dapperste en suksesvolste gebeurtenis van die hele beleg 'n aanval was deur kaptein Myers, van ons mariniers, en vyf-en-vyftig mans, Amerikaners, Britte en Russies, wat gelei het tot die vang van 'n formidabele versperring op die muur, verdedig deur honderde Chinese soldate, waarvan meer as vyftig gedood is. "24

Op 'n vergadering wat op 18 Augustus gehou is, het 'n groep Amerikaanse sendelinge besluit dat: "Die Amerikaners wat in Peking beleër is, wil hul hartlike waardering uitspreek oor die moed, getrouheid en patriotisme van die Amerikaanse mariniers, aan wie ons ons grootliks te danke het. redding. ” Die groep het verder besluit dat hulle, deur hul dapperheid om 'n byna onhoudbare posisie op die stadsmuur te beklee te midde van oorweldigende getalle, en deur saam te werk om die Chinese uit 'n sterk posisie te verdryf, alle buitelanders in Peking hul debiteure gemaak het, en het vir hulleself 'n eerbare naam gekry onder die helde van hul land. "25

Hierdie groep Amerikaanse mariniers was deel van die internasionale noodlenigingsekspedisie wat gestuur is om die beleg van Peking op te hef. (NARA 306-ST-505-58-4822)

Individuele eerbewyse is aan baie mariniers toegeken in die nasleep van die Boxer Rebellion. Drie-en-dertig aangewese manne word met die erepenning bekroon, insluitend die eerste medalje wat postuum aan 'n mariene toegeken is. Pvt. Harry Fisher is op 16 Julie dood toe hy gehelp het om 'n versperring naby die muur in Peking op te rig. Pvt. Dan Daly het sy eerste erepenning ontvang omdat hy vrywillig was om alleen op die bastion van die muur te bly terwyl hy die nag van 15 Julie konstant deur die vyand ondergaan het. dapperheid in aksie word gewoonlik onderskei deur 'gevorderd in getalle' te wees in hul rang of soms 'n brevet -rang toegeken. Kapt. John Myers het byvoorbeeld vier nommers gevorder en 'n hoof 1ste Lt. Smedley Butler met twee nommers gevorder en 'n kaptein en 1ste Lt. Henry Leonard twee nummers gevorder.27 Butler en Leonard is in 'n verslag uitgesonder aan Meade deur die Britse offisier in beheer van die optrede teen Tientsin op 13 Julie, "Onder baie gevalle van persoonlike dapperheid in die aksie stel ek spesiaal voor om die gedrag van 1st Lieut. Smedley D. Butler, United States Marine onder die aandag te bring Korps, deur 'n gewonde man van voor af onder 'n hewige en akkurate vuur in te bring, het Butler gewond terwyl hy dit gedoen het, maar ek is bly om nie ernstig te leer nie. om hom uit die vuurlyn te haal. Hierdie dapper prestasie het hy suksesvol behaal, maar ek is jammer dat ek baie gevaarlik gewond is. "28 Daarbenewens het drie offisiere wat in die Boxer Rebellion wen t word kommandante van die Marine Corps.29

Genealogiese navorsing

Die totale aantal mariniers wat tydens die Boxer Rebellion na China gestuur is, was 49 offisiere en 1 151 aangewese mans. 30 Diensrekords vir ingeroepe mariniers wat in die Boxer Rebellion gedien het, word in die Old Military and Civil Records -eenheid in die National Archives Building in Washington gehou. , DC, of ​​by die National Personal Records Center (Militêre Personeelrekords) in St. Louis, Missouri. Oor die algemeen word diensrekords vir aangewese mariniers wat voor 1905 van diens geskei het, gehou in Washington, DC, en diensrekords vir ingeroepe mariniers wat na 1905 geskei het, word in St. Navorsers wat kopieë van hierdie lêers per pos versoek, moet 'n NATF -vorm 80 [sien NATF -aantekening], 'National Archives Order For Copies of Veterans Records', gebruik vir rekords in Washington, DC en 'n standaardvorm 180, 'Request in verband met Militêre rekords "vir personeellêers in St.

Diensrekords of "dossiere" van ingeroepte mariniers by die National Archives word aangetref in Record Group 127, Records of the US Marine Corps, inskrywing 76. Diensrekords kan die volgende insluit: inskrywings- en heraanstellingspapiere, beskrywende lyste, rekords, kennisgewing van ontslag , militêre geskiedenis en die uitreiking van veldtogtekens en toekennings. Daar is twee reekse dossiere. Die eerste (mariniers wat voor 1895 aangesluit het) word gereël volgens die datum van inskrywing of laaste herinskrywing. As die inskrywingsdatum onbekend is, kan navorsers die kaartindeks gebruik in Rekordgroep 127, inskrywing 75, "Alfabetiese kaartlys van aangewese manne van die Marine Corps, 1798-1941." Die tweede reeks dossiere, vir die mariniers wat na 1895 ingeskryf het, is alfabeties gerangskik. Daar moet op gelet word dat dit nie ongewoon was dat ingeroepte mariniers gedurende hierdie tydperk aliasse gebruik nie. Diensrekords en inskrywingskaarte word ingedien onder die naam van die mariene wat tydens diens gebruik word.

Militêre personeellêers vir mariene offisiere wat in die Boxer Rebellion gedien het, word in St. Die National Personnel Records Center het rekords van alle seebeamptes wat na 1895 van die diens geskei is. ' Lys van beamptes van die vloot van die Verenigde State en van die mariene korps van 1775 tot 1900, geredigeer deur Edward W. Callahan.

Sommige inligting oor beamptes kan gevind word by die National Archives in Washington, DC, in volume twee (1899-1904) van inskrywing 67, "Record of Military Service of Marine Corps Officers", in Record Group 127. Hierdie bundel bevat inligting soos date and place of birth, state from which appointed, state of residence, date of commission, and military service for 1889- 1904.

Several reports related to marines in the Boxer Rebellion may be found in Record Group 127, entry 26, "Reports Relating to Engagements of Marine Corps Personnel in the Philippines and China, 1899-1901," and Record Group 80, General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947, entry 19, File #6320. Letters and reports not located in these two entries might be found in RG 127, entry 10, (Commandant's) "Letters Received, 1819-1903." This series is arranged alphabetically by initial letter of one of the following: surname of the correspondent, ship name, place name, location of marine barracks or duty station, name of the person concerned, or subject of the letter then chronologically under each letter.31

For a consolidated list of the Peking Legation Guards, see the "Names of the officers and enlisted men of the U.S. Marine Corps who were members of the Legation Guard during the siege of Pekin, China," found in RG 127, entry 26.32 The names of other marines involved in the Boxer Rebellion can be found in muster rolls in RG 127. Marine Corps muster rolls are arranged chronologically by year, then by month, and then by duty stations, units, ship detachments, and expeditionary forces. The muster rolls contain the names of officers and enlisted men, rank, date of enlistment/reenlistment, and date of transfer to or from another duty station including detached service.33 The muster rolls for this time period have been reproduced as part of National Archives Microfilm Publication T977, U.S. Marine Corps Muster Rolls, 1893-1958461 rolls). The muster rolls for July to September 1900 are available on T977, roll 21. This microfilm may be viewed in the Microfilm Reading Room at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.34

Campaign badges for service in the Boxer Rebellion were authorized by Navy Department Special Order No. 82 in 1908. The order authorized China Campaign Badges "to be issued to officers and enlisted men of the Marine Corps who served ashore in China with the Peking Relief Expedition, between May 24, 1900, and May 27, 1901, and the Legation Guard at Peking."35 As noted above, an individual's service record usually shows when the badge was issued and the campaign badge number. Many of these badges are listed in Record Group 127, entry 106, "Register of Badges, Medals and Bars Issued, 1908-1911."

Additional information of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps involvement in the Boxer Rebellion can be found in U.S. Navy deck logs in Record Group 24, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. The logbooks are arranged by name of a vessel and include daily entries for the ship. Naval vessels involved in China during the Boxer Rebellion include: USS Brooklyn, Buffalo, Iris, Monocacy, Nashville, New Orleans, Newark, Oregon, Solace, Wheeling, Yorktown, en Zafiro.

Contemporary accounts of the Boxer Rebellion can be found in the published annual reports of the Secretary of the Navy, Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the War Department for 1900 and 1901. These publications contain many official reports from officers in China. For narrative histories of the Marine Corps' role in the Boxer Rebellion, see Robert D. Heinl's Soldiers of the Sea: The United States Marine Corps, 1775-1962, en Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps by Alan R. Millett.

Let wel: NATF Form 80 was discontinued in November 2000. Use NATF 85 for military pension and bounty land warrant applications, and NATF 86 for military service records for Army veterans discharged before 1912.

See also this related article:

Chinese place names that appear in this article are those used in 1900 and are spelled as they appear in the U.S. military reports.

1. First Lt. J. R. Lindsey to Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, Annual Reports of the War Department, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1901, Vol. 1, pt. 6, pp. 454-459. Jonathan D. Spence, (The Search for Modern China1991), pp. 231-232.

2. Legations are official residences and offices of diplomatic ministers in a foreign country.

3. Robert D. Heinl, Soldiers of the Sea: The United States Marine Corps, 1775-1962 (1962), p. 127.

4. Capt. John T. Myers to Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Force on Asiatic Station, Sept. 26, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, pp. 1266-1270. The sailors from USS Newark included three blue jackets, one chief machinist, and one hospital apprentice. Chief Machinist Peterson arrived on June 3.

5. The foreign sailors and marines included: 35 Austrians, 82 British, 48 French, 51 Germans, 25 Japanese, 81 Russians, and 29 Italians. First Lt. J. R. Lindsey to Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, Annual Reports of the War Department, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1901, Vol. 1, pt. 6, pp. 454-459. Heinl, Soldiers of the Sea, p. 130.

6. Capt. John T. Myers to Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Force on Asiatic Station, Sept. 26, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, pp. 1266-1270. Spence, Search for Modern China, pp. 233-234.

7. Capt. John T. Myers to Brigadier-General Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps, Mar. 28, 1901, Reports Relating to Engagements of Marine Corps Personnel in the Philippines and China, 1899-1901, entry 26, Records of the U.S. Marine Corps, Record Group (RG) 127, National Archives Building (NAB), Washington, DC.

8. One Englishman and a Russian were also wounded during the assault. Myers's wound healed, but he soon came down with typhoid fever.

9. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, bl. 1116.

10. Littleton W. T. Waller to Second in Command, United States Naval Force, Asiatic Station, June 22, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, pp. 1148- 1149.

11. Littleton W. T. Waller to Brigadier-General Commandant, U.S. Marines, June 28, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, pp. 1150-1152.

12. Heinl, Soldiers of the Sea, bl. 133.

13. One officer was killed, and three were wounded.

14. Although General Chaffee was assigned to command American troops in China on June 26, 1900, he did not arrive in China until July 30. See Corbin to MacArthur, June 26, 1900, Correspondence Relating to the War With Spain (1902), Vol. 1, p. 419. Maj.-Gen. Adna R. Chaffee to Adjutant-General, USA, Sept. 1, 1900, Annual Reports of the War Department, For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900, Vol. 1, pt. 9, pp. 31- 43.

15. The marines accounted for 453 enlisted men and 29 officers.

16. W. P. Biddle to Major-General Commanding United States Forces, Aug. 20, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department, 1901, pp. 1276-1277. Maj.-Gen. Adna R. Chaffee to Adjutant- General, USA, Sept. 1, 1900, Annual Reports of the War Department, For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900, Vol. 1, pt. 9, pp. 31-43.

17. Biddle to Major-General Commanding United States Forces, Aug. 20, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, Report "B," p. 1278.

18. Biddle to Major-General Commanding United States Forces, Aug. 20, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, Report "C," p. 1278.

19. Spence, Search for Modern China, bl. 235.

20. Report of Wounded and Killed, G. A. Lung, Aug. 26, 1900, File 6320-65, General Correspondence, 1897-1915, entry 19, General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947, RG 80, NAB.

21. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, bl. 1232.

22. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, bl. 1234.

24. Extract from Report of Minister Conger to the Secretary of State, Aug. 17, 1900, entry 26, RG 127, NAB.

25. Attached to E. H. Conger to Maj. W. P. Biddle, Aug. 20, 1900, entry 26, RG 127, NAB.

26. N. H. Hall to J. T. Myers, Aug. 30, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, pp. 1270- 1271. Dan Daly was awarded a second Medal of Honor for service in Haiti in 1915.

27. "Awards For Services in China," entry 26, RG 127, NAB.

28. Brig. Gen. A.R.F Dorward to Col. Robert Meade, July 15, 1900, ibid.

29. Officers who went on to become Commandants were: William P. Biddle, Wendell C. Neville, and Ben H. Fuller.

30. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, bl. 1132.

31. Researchers interested in additional files related to the Boxer Rebellion may want to consult Area 10 records found in the Area Files of the Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library, RG 45, NAB. These records have been reproduced on NARA Microfilm Publication M625, Area File of the Naval Records Collection, 1775-1910 (414 rolls). Microfilm rolls 377 to 383 cover documents for May 1, 1900, to August 31, 1900.

32. Identifying marines in the Peking Legation can also be done by checking the May and June 1900 Marine Corps muster rolls of the USS Newark and the USS Oregon.

33. Muster rolls also show date of desertion, sick in the hospital, and minor infractions and punishments.

34. The microfilming of Microfilm Publication T977 has not yet been completed. Rolls covering 1893-1940 are available at the National Archives Building. Once microfilming is complete, rolls covering 1941-1958 will be available at the National Archives at College Park, MD. Contact military textual reference in College Park for reference service on the original bound volumes for 1940-1945. Reference service for the post-1945 muster rolls is provided by the Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington, DC.


A Chinese historical view of the Boxer Rebellion (1976)

Although Western historians and conservative Chinese historians have been critical of the Boxers, an alternative view in China sees the Boxers as patriotic defenders of China. This account appeared in China in 1976:

“The world-shaking Yi Ho Tuan Movement [Boxers] is the glory and pride of the Chinese people. It laid a cornerstone for the great victory of their revolution fifty years later. It gave the invaders a taste of the people’s heavy fist and shattered their fond dream of partitioning China. Earlier, they had arrogantly boasted that with 10,000 soldiers carrying modern arms they could subjugate all China.

Clamour for partition had filled the air. But after the Yi Ho Tuan mounted the political stage, this claptrap was no longer heard – not because the imperialists had changed in their aggressive nature and their desire to carve up China, but because the mighty Chinese people had taught them a bitter lesson through the Yi Ho Tuan…

To the Chinese people, the Yi Ho Tuan Movement brought a better understanding of imperialism, strengthening them in attacks against its rule in China. The imperialist powers liked to pose as guardians of civilisation. The crimes of their soldiery on Chinese soil bared this lie, unmasking their real savagery for all to see.

Further, the Yi Ho Tuan Movement exposed the treasonous character of the Qing government. It both weakened the feudal ruling power and precipitated the subsequent growth of the revolutionary movement.

These great and historic merits of the Yi Ho Tuan can never be obliterated. Yet the Yi Ho Tuan Movement has long been abused and slandered by the imperialists and all reactionary forces. In its own day, the imperialists labelled it a manifestation of the ‘hostility of the yellow race towards the white race’ and of ‘Chinese hatred for European culture and civilisation’. Imperialist lackeys dubbed it ‘irrational’. And 50 years later… a US Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, slandered it as an anti-foreign disturbance…

Not in vain did the Yi Ho Tuan heroes shed their blood. Their patriotism and dauntless courage will inspire the Chinese people forever. In the annals of the Chinese nation, the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal exploits of the Yi Ho Tuan will always be a lustrous chapter.”


Controversy in modern China

Though the reaction of the Boxers against foreign imperialism in China is regarded by some as patriotic, others in China consider this movement as a rebellion (disorder Mandarin Pinyin: luàn), a negative term in Chinese language, when described by commentators during the years of the Qing Dynasty and Republic of China. Chinese Communists have altered the perception of the rebellion by referring to it as an uprising (being upright q_yì), a more positive term in the Chinese language. It is frequently referred to as a “patriotic movement” in the People’s Republic of China by Communist politicians.

In January 2006, Freezing Point, a weekly supplement to the China Youth Daily newspaper, was closed partly due to its running of an essay by Yuan Weishi (History professor at Zhongshan University) that criticized the way in which the Boxer Rebellion and nineteenth century history about foreign interaction with China was portrayed in Chinese textbooks and taught at school.


The Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion targeted both the Manchu dynasty in China and the influence of European powers within China. Though the Boxer Rebellion failed but it did enough to stir up national pride within China itself.

In 1895, China had been defeated by Japan. This was a humiliation for the Chinese as Japan had always been considered as a lesser nation to China. China lost control of Korea and Formosa to Japan.

Within the elite of Chinese society, it was believed that this defeat was entirely the blame of the Europeans who were dominant in China and that they alone were responsible for China’s defeat.

Many Chinese began to feel the same. It was believed that the Europeans were driving China’s domestic and foreign policy and that the situation was getting out of control. By the end of the Nineteenth Century, a strong sense of nationalism swept over China and many wanted to reclaim China for the Chinese. In 1898, these feelings boiled over into rebellion.

The rebellion began in north China in the Shantung Province. This province was a German sphere of influence and Germany dominated the rail lines, factories and coal mines that existed in Shantung. The Germans made considerable profits while the Chinese there were paid very poor wages and lived very poor lifestyles.

In Shantung, gangs of Chinese people roamed the streets chanting “Kill the Christians” and “Drive out the foreign devils”. Germans who lived in Shantung were murdered as were other European missionaries. Those Chinese who had converted to Christianity were also murdered.

Those behind the Shantung rebellion belonged to a secret society called Yi Ho Tuan – which meant “Righteous Harmony Fists” when translated into English. This was shorten to Boxers and the rebellion has gone done in history as the Boxer Rebellion.

By 1900, the rebellion had started to spread across northern China and included the capital Peking.

One of the targets of the Boxers was the Manchu government. They were seen as being little more as unpatriotic stooges of the European ‘masters’ who did nothing for national pride.

The inspiration behind the Manchu government was the Empress Dowager. She was nicknamed “Old Buddha” – but never to her face. She had been married to the former emperor and was a very clever person. China was a society where women were ‘kept in their place’, therefore, she was an oddity within that male dominated society. Empress Dowager Tzu realised what was going on and made secret contact with the Boxers offering them her support. This they accepted. This allowed the Boxers to turn their full attention to the Europeans.

Peking had many Europeans living in it in 1900. Their lifestyle was completely different to that of the Chinese who lived in the city. The Europeans effectively treated the Chinese in Peking as their slaves. It was not surprising that the Boxers found many ready supporters in Peking.

In June 1900, it became clear that their lives were in danger and many prepared to leave the city. The German ambassador in China wanted to register one final protest at the way the Europeans were being treated in China. As he made his way to the Royal Palace to protest, he was dragged from his sedan chair (being carried by Chinese) and murdered. The message was clear. Even the high and mighty were not safe. The rest of the Europeans crowded into the British Legation for their own safety. They were defended by an assortment of 400 European soldiers and sailors nicknamed the “Carving Knife Brigade” because of their lack of proper weapons. They fought off the Boxers with great bravery who were joined in the attack by troops who guarded the Manchus.

The Siege of the Legation lasted for 55 days until an international force marching from Tientsin on the coast managed to relieve them. 66 Europeans had been killed in this time and 150 had been wounded. This type of treatment was unforgivable from a European point of view. America had also been shocked by the treatment of the Europeans.

The international force, as a punishment, went of the rampage in Peking – effectively urged on by the officers commanding them. Peking was extensively damaged. The Chinese government was also ordered to pay $450 million in compensation – a vast sum of money for any nation let alone one as poor as China. The European force, now supported by the Manchus, then took its revenge on the Boxers. Those caught were given little mercy and they were beheaded in public. The Manchus were effectively forgiven as was the Dowager Empress despite her apparent treachery. She and her family were allowed to return to the Forbidden Palace in Peking facing no punishment other than European nations re-establishing their authority over the Chinese. She had no other choice but to be compliant.


The Boxer Rebellion

T he Boxer Rebellion was one of the darkest episodes in the history of China, where the discontent of the masses, the drug trade and the interests of foreign countries were mixed against the interests of the Chinese people. With the first Opium War still recent and a Chinese government trying to end the legality of drug trafficking against the English, who did not want to lose business or income, political conditions increasingly required more than a radical change.

When the Chinese army, which tried to end the problem by force, was defeated, the conditions set by the English were not only that the traffic would continue, but also that they should unconditionally surrender the island of Hong Kong. These conditions were seen by the Chinese people as a terrible humiliation, and thus a new revolt began to develop.

The Boxers were a group of clandestine political activists, whose goal was to eliminate any foreign presence in China, and their activities began in 1899 with a terrible maneuver whose main objectives were to Christian missionaries, who were trying to spread Catholicism among the Chinese. The nickname Boxers was given to them by Westerners, due to their use of martial arts, boxing and fencing as tools to fight against Western power.

The political conditions imposed from abroad, the abuse of power by foreigners and a terrible famine that took the lives of more than 6 million people due to high taxes to support wars, ended up sowing strong xenophobic sentiment. . This sentiment fueled the Boxer's movement, who proclaimed that they would end even the last foreigner in the country.

Although they were officially banned and operated outside the government, there were members of the Royal Court who supported them, as is the case of the Empress Ci Xi, who saw the revolution as the only way to end foreign rule. In this way, the Boxers were empowered to start acting, and their first forays skewed the lives of about 230 foreigners and several thousand Chinese Christians.

The darkest days came with the assassination of Baron Klemens von Ketteler, Germany’s ambassador to China, when several countries officially declared war on China. In 1900, Boxers took Tientsing, entering Beijing with several missionary heads stuck in pikes. Although his actions were condemned by the government, many members of the imperial troops actively supported his cause.

The embassies of Beijing were under siege for two months, but the foreign countries had assembled an army of about 20,000 soldiers, who would have to face the nearly 360,000 who were fighting in the ranks of the Boxers, an action they carried out in less than two months, but not without resistance. The consequences were dire for the Chinese people, who were brutally repressed in subsequent years to prevent a new uprising.

After the rebellion was quelled, the Qing Dynasty was forced to sign the Xinchou Treaty, which left China clearly at a disadvantage with foreign powers. Its two main conditions were that the death penalty would be applied to xenophobes and important compensation in terms of territories. The resource value of this compensation was equal to half the annual national product, which precipitated the fall of the Qing Dynasty and accelerated the arrival of the Republic of China.


Boxer Rebellion: The Chinese React to Imperialism

Commercial concessions had been forced on China dating to the end of the Opium Wars (1839-1842), a contrived series of conflicts engineered by British trading interests. France, Germany and Russia later demanded and received similar treatment. Paramount among the great powers’ requirements was the granting of treaty ports and extraterritorial status. China was later divided into spheres of influence in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), allowing outside nations even greater latitude. Understandably, the Chinese deeply resented the presence of the great powers and the weakness of their own government. China had effectively lost its independence. One reaction to this exploitation was the emergence of a clandestine martial arts society referred to by the English as the “Boxers” (their Chinese name being translated as “righteous harmonious fists”). The nativist group launched a series of attacks against foreigners, Chinese Christians and complicit government officials. The high point of the rebellion occurred in mid-1900, when Beijing was occupied by 140,000 Boxers. They laid siege to the British legation, which harbored most of the international community. The entrenched foreigners held out for two months until a hastily arranged multinational military force managed to break the siege, scattering the Boxers. As a result of the Boxer Rebellion, China was subjected to even greater humiliation. An indemnity of more than $300 million was levied on the nearly bankrupt nation and the government was forced to allow the permanent quartering of foreign soldiers in Beijing. The United States attempted to mitigate some of the financial damage from the Boxer Rebellion by later using much of its share of the reparations to fund scholarships for Chinese students studying in America. From the international perspective, the Boxer Rebellion increased support for the Open Door policy. The great powers realized that warring among themselves would inhibit their ability to exploit China. The Opium Wars, (1839-1842), were the first attempt by the weak Chinese government to eliminate the opium trade that had been thrust upon them by British traders. The British merchants illicitly brought the opium into China from India, against Chinese laws, to pay for the "trade goods" they wanted. The Chinese did want to sell their Porcelain and silk but they had no desire to "Trade" with the foreigners. The Chinese produced everything they needed themselves and considered foreign products to be of inferior quality. Overwhelmed by the Western military response, the Chinese were humiliated by having to pay reparations and allow concessions to the Western powers that effectively denied them control over their own country.


Boxer Rebellion

Definition and Summary of the Boxer Rebellion
Summary and Definition: The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-imperialist uprising of peasants in northern China between Autumn 1899 - 7 September 1901 that was aimed at ousting foreign interlopers with their foreign religions and strange cultures from China. An Eight-Nation Alliance of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Japan, Russia, and Italy was formed in 1900 to organize an intervention in China. The result of the Boxer Rebellion was a victory for the alliance.

Boxer Rebellion for kids
William McKinley was the 25th American President who served in office from March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901. One of the important events during his presidency was the Boxer Rebellion.

Boxer Rebellion: Chinese Troops and Boxers
The Picture shows Chinese Troops and the Boxers in 1899. The Boxer s are the men on the right of the picture. The dominant figure in the front of the picture is a drum major of the regular army of China. The other men in the picture are infantrymen of the New Imperial Army.

Why was it called the Boxer Rebellion?
The uprising was called the Boxer Rebellion because the revolt was begun by a secret Chinese religious society called "I Ho Ch uan" which translated into English means "Righteous Harmony Fists". Because the original name of the secret society included the word "ch uan", meaning fist, the rebels were called boxers by foreigners - hence the name of the Boxer Rebellion. The name was further emphasized by the Chinese rebels who performed rituals and exercises in martial arts 'Magical Kung-Fu' that they believed would give them the ability to withstand bullets. Westerners referred to these ceremonies as shadow boxing, underlining the Boxers nickname.

Summary of the Boxer Rebellion for kids: Origins of the Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion originated in Northern China in the Shantung Province. Shantung was a hotbed of discontent. Ex-Soldiers, disbanded from the government army, flocked to the area turning to crime when they were unable to find work. Shantung had a history and tradition of rebellions led by secret societies. Boxing and martial arts were practiced by thousands of men in province, sponsored by the secret societies. The "Righteous Harmony Fists" emerged in 1898, attacked Chinese Christians and organized anti-foreign uprisings and protests against the Qing dynasty and government.

Causes of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Western Powers: The Opium War (1839-1842) forced China to grant commercial concessions at first to Great Britain and then to other countries opening China to foreign trade. The industries and commerce in China were destroyed by the inflow of cheap foreign goods. The Opium War also resulted in widespread opium addiction in China.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Gunboat Policy: Between 1870 to 1894, the Western powers adopted a "gunboat" policy in dealing with China using force to get what they wanted. The Chinese viewed foreigners as barbarians.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Weak government in China: The ruling Qing dynasty (aka Ching dynasty) in China had been weakened by European encroachments and influence in China and further damaged by Japan's success in the First Sino-Japanese 1894-1895 War. Conflicting factions in the Qing dynasty reduced their power even further and exploitation by the westerners resulted in a rise in taxes.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Anti-Christian Feelings: Chinese peasants resented the number of Christian missionaries and Chinese converts to the new Western religion which led to the emergence of the secret religious society called the "I Ho Ch uan" (Righteous Harmony Fists), nicknamed the Boxers. The Boxers soon extended their goal to eradicate all foreign presence and influence in China and the rebellion started to spread.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Natural disasters: Natural disasters were blamed on the Christians and fuelled anti-foreign feelings. These included the flooding of the Yellow River in 1898 followed by the terrible drought of 1900.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Economic hardship: Economic hardship, poverty, unemployment and high taxes stirred the rebels into action resulting in the eruption of the Boxer Rebellion.

Causes of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion
The effects the Boxer Rebellion were as follows:

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: President McKinley tried to safeguard free trade between the United States through the Open Door policy, announced in 1899.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Qing government gave their support to the rebels which stopped their protests against the government. The Qing dynasty believed that the rebels could be used against the hated foreigners.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Boxer uprising increased and Chinese Christians and foreigners were killed in the violence.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay tried to safeguard Chinese territorial integrity and free trade through the Open Door policy, announced in 1899.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: Technological advances introduced by the Westerners such as the railroad and telegraph lines were destroyed, and foreigners were murdered.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers moved from Shantung to Peking (Beijing), where the western foreigners and legations from United States, Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Japan, Russia, and Italy had set up their base. Starting on 20 June 1900, Boxer forces and Imperial Chinese troops besieged the foreign diplomats

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: In June 1890, an international military force of 2000 sailed from Tientsin to Peking

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The United States had favored independent action but the uprising reached such high levels of violence and destruction that President McKinley to ordered Rear Admiral Louis Kempff (United States military commander in China) to "act in concurrence with other powers so as to protect all American interests.". President McKinley then ordered the transfer of 2500 American soldiers from the Philippines to China

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Battle of Peking: The joint forces of the eight nations ended the Boxer s siege of Peking on August 14, 1900. The emperor, the Dowager Empress and members of the Qing court fled Peking in the early morning of 15 August

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Significance of the Boxer Rebellion
The significance of the Boxer Rebellion was as follows:

Significance of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: The combined military forces of the Allied Expedition were far superior to the Boxers and the Qing troops. The Boxer Rebellion had raged from Autumn 1899 - 7 September 1901. Peace was finally established in China and the Boxer protocol was signed in September 1901.

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: Chinese resentment to the Qing dynasty became widespread and within ten years the Chinese imperial system was overthrown and the Chinese Republic was established

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: President McKinley was criticized by Democratic politicians and newspapers who accused the president with imperialism and exceeding his constitutional authority. President McKinley argued that a president s constitutional war powers granted him such authority.

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: The prestige of the United States as a world power increased as a result of their actions and involvement during the Boxer Rebellion.

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Boxer Rebellion - President William McKinley Video
The article on the Boxer Rebellion provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following William McKinley video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 25th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901.

Boxer Rebellion: Siege of Peking

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Kyk die video: THE BOXER REBELLION EXPLAINED - BOXER REBELLION DOCUMENTARY (Januarie 2022).